Ketolysis is the process of breaking down ketones to ultimately provide energy through the Krebs Cycle and mitochondrial oxidative (using oxygen) phosphorylation. Ketone bodies are broken down in the mitochondria of virtually all tissues in the body. The liver is a notable exception, being unable to utilise ketones as a fuel because liver cells lack acetyl-CoA thiolase, a key enzyme in the ketone oxidative pathway. BHB enters the mitochondria of the cell through a monocarboxylate transporter, undergoes conversion to acetoacetate by BHB dehydrogenase and then addition of a CoA group from succinyl-CoA by 3-oxo-acid transferase. The resulting acetoacetyl-CoA acts a substrate for the formation of two molecules of acetyl-CoA in a reaction catalysed by acetyl-CoA thiolase. Acetyl-CoA is then available to condense with oxaloacetate and enter the Krebs cycle.

In skeletal muscle, oxidative capacity and mitochondrial content are related to fiber type. Compared to type II fibers, type I fibers have larger mitochondria [370] with greater oxidative enzyme content [371]. While fiber type is plastic, particularly in response to endurance exercise, transformation from oxidative, slow-twitch fibers (type I) to glycolytic, fast-twitch fibers (type II) is unlikely to occur [372, 373]. Type II fibers, however, can shift in humans from highly glycolytic (type IIx) to more oxidative (type IIa) [373]. Compared to type IIx fibers, type IIa fibers have greater citrate synthase activity, indicating greater mitochondrial content [374]. The relevance of oxidative capacity and fiber type to oxidative stress has been demonstrated by greater mitochondrial respiration with less H2O2 production in permeabilized fibers from rat muscle consisting primarily of type I or IIa fibers versus type IIb fibers [375]. Although muscle fiber-type transformation has been well characterized in response to exercise, this appears to not be the case for ketogenic diets. However, in rats, β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD) has been shown to increase most prominently in glycolytic, type IIb fibers following 4 weeks of a ketogenic diet (% energy: 70 fat, 6 carbohydrate, and 24 protein) [165], suggesting transition of these fibers towards type IIa fibers and, in turn, indicating potential for nutritional ketosis to promote a more oxidative muscle fiber composition.
More definitive evidence that metabolic syndrome per se predisposes to coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease has been reported. Thus a twofold to fourfold increase in subsequent cardiovascular events has been described in men and women with metabolic syndrome (modified WHO criteria) even in the absence of type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance.234-236 Qualitatively, similar results have been obtained when metabolic syndrome was defined by ATP III criteria237,238 (Fig. 43-9). In a compilation of multiple studies, the presence of metabolic syndrome had a greater impact on the risk for developing diabetes (fivefold) than ASCVD (twofold).22,182,199 In addition, where studied, the rate of cardiovascular events was higher in patients who had diabetes and metabolic syndrome than in individuals with only metabolic syndrome.22,239
I used the coconut flour, Now whole psyllium husks (ground by me), and whole eggs…this bread is exactly what I have been looking for, for such a long time. Yes a bit dense with the whole eggs but super-tasty nonetheless. I know if doing egg whites would make a bit lighter. Mine did not turn purple either, and I didn’t order a special pan, just used a regular loaf pan. Also, used coconut vinegar instead as all I had on hand and subbed perfectly. Thank you Thank you for a terrific recipe!

Is there any way you can post at the beginning of a recipe: NOT for weight loss. I have tried a few recipes before reading the comments below, made it, then saw it was a no no for weight loss. Thanks! I made your pita bread too and it rocks. I am waiting for this amazing bread to come out of the over right now. I am worried about eating now though. Too many carbs for weight loss?

The longest studies/follow-ups for ketogenic diets are about 10 years long and have shown it to be safe [3, 4, 5, 6]. Studies that carefully keep people in metabolic wards to strictly monitor food intake and biomarkers are always short because they are very costly and laborious. Moreover, most participants are not able or willing to participate for a long time in a study that supervises food intake around the clock. For these reasons, these kinds of studies are always of short duration, a few weeks maximum.
We can say that no species, including humans, could have survived for millions of years without the ability to withstand brief periods of hunger or starvation (Amen-Ra, 2006). These periods of fasting are themselves ketogenic (McCue, 2010) during which the concentrations of insulin and glucose decrease while that of glucagon increases in the attempt to maintain normal blood glucose levels. When the body passes from a condition of food abundance to one of deprivation (or else via VLCKD simulated deprivation), there is, with a slight delay, an increase in the concentration of free FAs as well as KB in the blood. Thus, from this point of view KD could be compared to caloric restriction for fasting. These manipulations of nutrients, both in quantity and quality, seem to not only act on blood glucose/KB level but also to promote changes in metabolic pathways and cellular signaling. How this kind of metabolic condition (ketosis) can affect satiety and hunger mechanisms is still a matter of debate.
And the one thing to keep in mind is that your bread will likely fall slightly post bake. Blame it on the lack of starch (keto flours are notoriously heavy and moist) and certain missing proteins (think gluten). Just keep in mind that we’re baking at ridiculously high altitude here, so if our loaf was still nearly double it’s volume after cooling- odds are yours will be even better!
Look, the good doctor is right – he only forgot to stress “portion control” which is why many fanatical dieters are so kee-jerk reactive to any discussion – odds are you over ate like a hog before your keto diet, and are weak and insecure in your diet plans. Eat EVERYTHING in small amounts, and you will live long and prosper. The only thing to avoid are processed foods. Cook your meals from scratch using quality ingredients.
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Like fiber, protein tempers insulin secretion, leading to a more gradual rise in blood sugar after a meal. It also fills you up better than any other nutrient. Eating a protein-rich breakfast may be particularly important, as it helps set the tone for the rest of the day. The amount of protein you need in your diet depends on a number of factors, but general protein recommendations for healthy adults are 0.8 to 1.0 gram per kilogram of body weight (55 to 68 grams per day for someone who’s 150 pounds). Good animal sources include wild-caught fish, grass-fed beef, and pasture-raised chicken and eggs. If you’re vegetarian or vegan, load up on these eight plant-based protein sources.


Ketolysis is the process of breaking down ketones to ultimately provide energy through the Krebs Cycle and mitochondrial oxidative (using oxygen) phosphorylation. Ketone bodies are broken down in the mitochondria of virtually all tissues in the body. The liver is a notable exception, being unable to utilise ketones as a fuel because liver cells lack acetyl-CoA thiolase, a key enzyme in the ketone oxidative pathway. BHB enters the mitochondria of the cell through a monocarboxylate transporter, undergoes conversion to acetoacetate by BHB dehydrogenase and then addition of a CoA group from succinyl-CoA by 3-oxo-acid transferase. The resulting acetoacetyl-CoA acts a substrate for the formation of two molecules of acetyl-CoA in a reaction catalysed by acetyl-CoA thiolase. Acetyl-CoA is then available to condense with oxaloacetate and enter the Krebs cycle.
Before we begin, a disclaimer in order: If you want to actually understand this topic, you must invest the time and mental energy to do so.  You really have to get into the details.  Obviously, I love the details and probably read 5 or 6 scientific papers every week on this topic (and others).  I don’t expect the casual reader to want to do this, and I view it as my role to synthesize this information and present it to you. But this is not a bumper-sticker issue.  I know it’s trendy to make blanket statements – ketosis is “unnatural,” for example, or ketosis is “superior” – but such statements mean nothing if you don’t understand the biochemistry and evolution of our species.  So, let’s agree to let the unsubstantiated statements and bumper stickers reside in the world of political debates and opinion-based discussions.  For this reason, I’ve deliberately broken this post down and only included this content (i.e., background) for Part I.
Most people who have metabolic syndrome have insulin resistance. The body makes insulin to move glucose (sugar) into cells for use as energy. Obesity, commonly found in people with metabolic syndrome, makes it more difficult for cells in the body to respond to insulin. If the body can’t make enough insulin to override the resistance, the blood sugar level increases, causing type 2 diabetes. Metabolic syndrome may be a start of the development of type 2 diabetes.
As with PGC-1α, nutritional ketosis may activate FOXO3a by increasing activity of AMPK and sirtuins or by decreasing insulin. Expression of FOXO3a is increased by fasting, caloric restriction, and BHB [103, 105], all of which are or can be components of a ketogenic diet. Furthermore, BHB treatment has extended lifespan in C. elegans in a manner dependent on FOXO3a [95], and a ketogenic diet (% energy: 89 fat, <1 carbohydrate, and 10 protein) has increased median lifespan and decreased tumors and age-associated losses of physical and cognitive performance, all in conjunction with increased hepatic content of FOXO3a [36].
You are right. It’s not 2g it’s 4g per mug bread. We use 30 grams of almond flour which is 6g carbs and 1g from the egg which is 4g net carbs. I’ve corrected it. My earlier calculation was with ‘Trader Joe’s Almond Flour’. Bob’s Red Mill is what’ I’ve used now. Also almond flour = ground almonds which have 10g net carbs per 100g so we’re anyway looking at 3g net carbs for 30 grams of almond flour plus the .7g from the egg. So 4g is about right.

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The discovery of many appetite-related hormones provided molecular basis for appetite control, decreasing the relevance of the metabolites hypothesis (Karatsoreos et al., 2013). Recently, Sumithran et al. demonstrated that there is a long-term persistence of changes in some peripheral hormones involved in food control (Sumithran et al., 2011). In this study, they found a significant difference in mean levels of many food intake-related hormones 1 year after the cessation of weight loss via the hypocaloric diet. There was a long lasting decrease of anorexigenic compounds: leptin, PYY, cholecystokinin, insulin, and pancreatic peptide and an increase of the orexigenic molecule ghrelin. Moreover, they found that hunger remained elevated 1 year after diet cessation. In a successive study the same group investigated hunger-related hormones after 8 weeks of KD, demonstrating that during ketosis the increase of ghrelin (a strong stimulator of appetite) was suppressed (Sumithran et al., 2013). These results are consistent with those of Ratliff et al (Ratliff et al., 2009), who found no significant change in fasting plasma ghrelin after 12 weeks of VLCD.
Even without the gluten of a traditional tortilla, this keto bread recipe creates a soft and pliable alternative perfect for all your favorite taco fillings. Almond and coconut flours keep carbs to a minimum, while xanthan gum holds everything together. Each tortilla tallies up to 2 net carbs, and takes only five minutes to cook. No Bulletproof substitutions needed — just avoid eating xanthan gum too often.

The ketogenic diet can compromise high intensity sprint performance: High intensity exercise performance is heavily reliant on the ability to produce energy via anaerobic respiration (glycolysis), which requires carbohydrate as a substrate. Following a ketogenic diet causes a decrease in the amount/activity of the enzymes in the glycolysis pathway that decreases the rate that the pathway can proceed24. This could explain the decrease in anaerobic sprint performance consistently seen with athletes following a ketogenic diet 25 ,23. 
One of the foods that people tell us they miss most after going keto is bread. (And cookies or cakes, but you get the idea.) We get it, bread is undeniably comfort food. Growing up, it wasn’t unheard of to eat toast for breakfast, a sandwich for lunch, and maybe even a slice of buttered bread along with dinner. Not only is that ton of carbs, but it’s also a lot of empty calories when we could have been eating real-food alternatives, like this bread made from nutrient-dense ingredients!
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