The primary problem in metabolic syndrome is insulin resistance. In the body's attempt to compensate for insulin resistance, extra insulin is produced, leading to elevated insulin levels. The elevated insulin levels can lead, directly or indirectly, to the characteristic metabolic abnormalities seen in these patients. Frequently, the insulin resistance will progress to overt type 2 diabetes, which further increases the risk of cardiovascular complications.
Ketone esters (BHB-BD) lowers blood lactic acid 30. Lactic acid build up occurs during exercise as a result of burning carbohydrate at a high rate without enough oxygen. Blood lactic acid levels during exercise were 30% lower after ketone ester drinks compared to carbohydrate drinks. This is because high blood levels of BHB from the ketone ester drink slow down carbohydrate use and increase oxygen efficiency, which could decrease blood lactic acid levels. 
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Certain ionophores are capable of completely uncoupling mitochondria by transporting H+ across the inner membrane. Such ionophores are therefore commonly used to measure maximal mitochondrial respiration. In mice fed a ketogenic diet (Bio-Serv F3666, ∼6  :  1 ratio of fat to carbohydrate + protein) for 6 days, respiration of hippocampal mitochondria was fully uncoupled with the ionophore carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP) [146]. The ratio of respiration during oxidation of palmitic acid to maximally uncoupled respiration induced by FCCP was greater in response to the ketogenic diet, indicating increased uncoupling [146]. Although this interpretation relies on the assumption that ATP production was not changed by diet, it is further supported by the higher levels of UCP2, UCP4, and UCP5 detected in mitochondria after the ketogenic diet. Furthermore, mtROS production was lower in the ketogenic diet group [146], supporting the role of uncoupling as an antioxidant defense. Although not based on direct measurement of mitochondrial function, in rats fed a ketogenic diet (% energy: 89.5 fat, 0.1 carbohydrate, and 10.4 protein), increased uncoupling in response to nutritional ketosis is further indicated by increases in fat oxidation and overall O2 consumption occurring in conjunction with decreases in CO2 production and energy expenditure [89]. However, based on observations of greater palmitate-induced uncoupling (determined by measurement of ΔΨ) during state 4 respiration in rats fed a high-fat, low carbohydrate diet (% energy: 50 fat, 21 carbohydrate, and 29 protein) [147] that was likely too high in carbohydrate and protein to induce nutritional ketosis, it is possible that moderate carbohydrate restriction may increase mitochondrial uncoupling independently of ketones.

Look no further for keto breakfast recipes: This may be the only list you’ll ever need. There’s something for everyone here, including paleo, egg-free, dairy-free, vegetarian, vegan, and Whole30 options. (Only enjoy coffee or tea in the morning? We got you covered there, too.) Best of all? These recipes are all under 10 net carbs per serving — and most are much lower than that.
Typically, to gain lean body mass one needs to have some degree of caloric surplus, or at the very least, not be in a significant deficit. This is especially true when looking to add muscle mass. It is certainly possible to gain muscle mass on a ketogenic diet. For most individuals this would require consuming adequate protein (while still remaining in ketosis), enough calories to support growth, sufficient electrolytes to support muscle function, as well as incorporating progressive resistance training. The type and volume of resistance exercise needed to add lean body mass will be very dependent on the individual and their age, training status, health status, etc. Therefore, the answer to this question can become quite nuanced, but in simple terms, yes, it is very possible to gain lean body mass on a ketogenic diet while still taking advantage of the health promoting effects this way of eating provides.

Normally, the body breaks down carbohydrates, fat, and (sometimes) proteins to provide energy. When carbohydrate is consumed in the diet, some is used immediately to maintain blood glucose levels, and the rest is stored. The hormone that signals to cells to store carbohydrate is insulin. The liver stores carbohydrate as glycogen, this is broken down and released between meals to keep blood glucose levels constant. Muscles also store glycogen, when broken down this provides fuel for exercise. Most cells in the body can switch readily between using carbohydrates and fat as fuel. Fuel used depends on substrate availability, on the energy demands of the cell and other neural and hormonal signals. 
Apart from administering insulin, the fastest way to lower your blood glucose is to engage in physical activity. Exercise results in an increased sensitivity to insulin. It causes your muscle cells to take up more glucose, leaving less of it to circulate in your bloodstream during and after the physical activity (which means a lower blood glucose when you test). Frequent, regular exercise is very important to good blood glucose control no matter what type of diabetes you have. Research has shown that it is vital in warding off long-term complications like neuropathy, retinopathy, and heart and kidney diseases. Don't forget to check with a doctor, though, before making any major changes to your exercise routine. And, if you have type 1 diabetes and your glucose is 250 mg/dl or higher, check for urine ketones. You should not exercise if ketones are present.
Before we get started, here’s a short recap of the tips so far: The first and most crucial piece of advice was to choose a low-carb diet. The next were eating when hungry, eating real food, eating only when hungry, measuring progress wisely, being persistent, avoiding fruit, beer and artificial sweeteners, review your medications, stressing less and sleeping more, eating less dairy and nut products, stocking up on vitamins and minerals, using intermittent fasting and finally, exercising smart.
Jennifer, The yeast has no carbs. The coconut sugar does have carbs, but the yeast feeds on it and through the process of fermentation uses the sugar for energy and releases carbon dioxide gas as a result. The yeast is for flavor, aroma, and in our opinion does help with a little bit of rise. Additionally, we don’t like to consider any foods “bad”, “off-limits”, or not keto. Instead, we opt to mainly eat nourishing real foods that fit into our daily macro intake. We hope this helps! Best of luck on your keto journey.
I have made this bread and as everybody knows it is wonderful. I have one problem though, my son loved it but the next day he told me he was gasy and a bit painful. I know that fiber causes some gas but I was wondering if you know from your experience with so many people, if this will go away after a while or does it mean that he shouldn’t eat any psyllium husk anymore…
In addition, metabolic syndrome has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several other diseases, including obstructive sleep apnea. Breast cancer has also been linked to metabolic syndrome, possibly through dysregulation of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) cycle. [64] Additional studies have linked metabolic syndrome with cancers of the colon, gallbladder, kidney, and, possibly, prostate gland. [65] Evidence is emerging of an association with psoriasis. [66, 67]

Thanks for replying. I guess I’ll just try it on both convection and regular and see which works out best! 🙂 I had made the sub roll in a regular oven with good results yet it didn’t turn out as well when baked on convection. That’s why I was wondering about the temperature and whether that was the culprit. Guess there’s only one way to find out. This experimenting can get expensive!


Hi Maya, I’m new to your website and I’m anxious to try out this bread recipe. I’m helping my 27 year old son lose some weight. He’s on some pretty potent medication that has caused him to crave carbs thus putting on quite a bit of weight over the past few years. Since I’m his caregiver and also a Certified Nutritionist, I’m looking for some healthy alternatives to make his transition a bit easier and he loves bread.
Nutritional ketosis may facilitate PGC-1α activity through multiple mechanisms. Since PGC-1α is activated by AMPK and SIRT1, nutritional ketosis may initiate PGC-1α activity through these enzymes. As previously mentioned, catecholamines and adiponectin facilitate PGC-1α activity by promoting its expression, and insulin inhibits PGC-1α through downstream phosphorylation, all independent of AMPK. As previously discussed, a ketogenic diet may increase catecholamines and adiponectin and is well known to decrease insulin, indicating that nutritional ketosis may directly facilitate PGC-1α activity through these hormones. Supporting these potential mechanisms, a ketogenic or low-carbohydrate diet has increased expression, protein content, and activation of PGC-1α [149, 231, 317], as well as expression of its target PPARα [87, 148]. Furthermore, in skeletal muscle of mice following a ketogenic diet, the resulting increases in O2 consumption and expression of genes related to fat oxidation appear to be dependent on PGC-1α [157]. Ketones likely contribute to this signaling as well based on the recent observation that the increased hepatic expression of PPARα targets induced by a ketogenic diet did not occur with a nonketogenic low-carbohydrate diet [37].

359. Shelar S. B., Narasimhan M., Shanmugam G., et al. Disruption of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived-2)-like 2 antioxidant signaling: a mechanism for impaired activation of stem cells and delayed regeneration of skeletal muscle. FASEB Journal. 2016;30(5):1865–1879. doi: 10.1096/fj.201500153. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
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Look, the good doctor is right – he only forgot to stress “portion control” which is why many fanatical dieters are so kee-jerk reactive to any discussion – odds are you over ate like a hog before your keto diet, and are weak and insecure in your diet plans. Eat EVERYTHING in small amounts, and you will live long and prosper. The only thing to avoid are processed foods. Cook your meals from scratch using quality ingredients.


Although the first formal definition of metabolic syndrome entered medical textbooks not so long ago (1998), it is as widespread as pimples and the common cold . According to the American Heart Association, 47 million Americans have it. That's almost a staggering one out of every six people. The syndrome runs in families and is more common among African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and Native Americans. The risks of developing metabolic syndrome increases as you age.
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To encourage ketone production, the amount of insulin in your bloodstream must be low. The lower your insulin, the higher your ketone production. And when you have a well-controlled, sufficiently large amount of ketones in your blood, it’s basically proof that your insulin is very low – and therefore, that you’re enjoying the maximum effect of your low-carbohydrate diet. That’s what’s called optimal ketosis.
That said, the nutrition facts that I get after entering the recipe into my app came up with almost twice the calories. My Tillamook Mild Cheddar cheese is 110 calories per ounce—so that alone gets me to 385 calories. Overall I end up with 51.5 grams of fat, 34.5 grams protein, 4.5 grams of carbs, and 632 calories. I am hoping to try it again with half the cheese to see if I can still get the great flavor and wonderful crispy taco shell.
Insulin resistance also may increase your risk for metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance is a condition in which the body can’t use its insulin properly. Insulin is a hormone that helps move blood sugar into cells where it’s used for energy. Insulin resistance can lead to high blood sugar levels, and it’s closely linked to overweight and obesity. Genetics (ethnicity and family history) and older age are other factors that may play a role in causing metabolic syndrome.

Most people who have metabolic syndrome already have a closely related condition called insulin resistance, which is when the body stops responding to insulin (a hormone produced in the pancreas). After the food we eat is converted into a type of sugar called glucose, insulin is what enables the glucose to enter the body’s cells and be used as energy. For someone who is insulin resistant, however, the glucose builds up in the blood, setting the stage for damage.
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Proof the yeast. This involves mixing dry active yeast with water that’s just warm to touch (between 105-110°F to be precise) and maple syrup or honey for 7 minutes until foamy. And before you scream sugar (!!) remember that the yeast will feed on such sugar to emit carbon dioxide, so it doesn’t affect the carb count at all. And yes, this is a scientific fact.
So, now, I’ve got another loaf in the oven. I doubled the salt, ground up the Psyllium Husk in my Blend Tec (instead of the shoddy thing I used the first time) and reduced the baking soda to 3 tsp. I also (accidentally) ended up with 1 egg yolk in there. Hopefully, that won’t cause too much of an issue. I weighed all my ingredients and I’m hopeful that this batch will give me the results I am looking for. I would *love* a grilled cheese sandwich for a quick-fix dinner with my keto plan. 🙂 Thanks for the recipe. I’ll let you know how this batch turns out.
Although convincing, the bulk of evidence in relation to the inhibitory effects of ketosis on appetite is still anecdotal. Preliminary scientific reports seem to support this phenomenon, and the evidence shows that KD is more effective, at least in the short/medium-term, on fat loss (Paoli, 2014). It was demonstrated that diet-induced weight loss leads to changes in energy expenditure and in appetite-regulating hormones that facilitate weight regain and the return to initial energy homeostasis (Sumithran et al., 2011). This response to alteration of energy balance nullifies the success of many dietary approaches. It is well-known that the long-term success of a nutritional approach is defined by the amount of weight regain and is the main problem regarding the so-called weight cycling or “yo-yo” effect (Jeffery, 1996). A recent study by our group has demonstrated that a brief ketogenic period, if followed by a longer period of correct Mediterranean diet could avoid this yo-yo effect (Paoli et al., 2013). During the ketogenic period subjects reported less hunger, confirming previous studies (Nickols-Richardson et al., 2005; Johnston et al., 2006; Johnstone et al., 2008) on hunger-suppression effect of ketogenic diet. Despite these clinical findings, the mechanisms of action of ketosis on appetite reduction are still not completely understood. Clinical results are suggestive of both direct and indirect (via modifications of hunger-related hormones concentration) actions of KBs on appetite (Sumithran et al., 2013).
Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of cardiovascular risk factors that leads to an increased risk for premature cardiovascular disease and increased susceptibility of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. The syndrome represents a collection of multiple derangements that include elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance or insulin resistance, atherogenic dyslipidemia (i.e., high triglycerides, low high‐density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol, and small low‐density lipoprotein [LDL] particles), proinflammatory and prothrombotic properties, and obesity, with a particular contribution of abdominal obesity. There are two definitions for adults: World Health Organization, 1998 and the National Cholesterol Education Panel (NCEP), Third Adult Treatment Panel, 2001.
Triglycerides are a common form of fat that we digest. Triglycerides are the main ingredient in animal fats and vegetable oils. Elevated levels of triglycerides are a risk factor for heart disease, heart attack, stroke, fatty liver disease, and pancreatitis. Elevated levels of triglycerides are also associated with diseases like diabetes, kidney disease, and medications (for example, diuretics, birth control pills, and beta blockers). Dietary changes, and medication if necessary can help lower triglyceride blood levels.

Clinical results suggest both direct and indirect actions of ketones via modifications of various hunger-related hormones concentrations. While it’s not completely clear how ketosis reduces appetite, studies have found that ketosis is effective at lowering food intake and regulating appetite by altering levels of the hunger hormones including cholecystokinin (CCK) and ghrelin. At the same, ketone bodies seem to affect the hypothalamus region in the brain, positively impact leptin signals, and avoid slowing down the metabolism like most other diets do. (5)
The 2 major issues that will lead to a flat loaf is not whipping the egg whites and gently folding them in OR using almond meal instead of a finely ground almond flour. If you've tried everything and they don't seem to be working for you, the next best option will be to make a larger recipe. Try making 1.5x this recipe (it's easy to do using the servings slide bar) and you'll have a much larger loaf.
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