388. Little J. P., Safdar A., Wilkin G. P., Tarnopolsky M. A., Gibala M. J. A practical model of low-volume high-intensity interval training induces mitochondrial biogenesis in human skeletal muscle: potential mechanisms. Journal of Physiology. 2010;588(6):1011–1022. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2009.181743. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]


The ketogenic diet is high-fat and low-carb, and if you pay attention to food and nutrition trends, then you already know that creative recipes for this weight-loss plan are all over social media. If you've gone keto or are thinking of trying it, check out these tasty morning meal ideas to help you stay full, score energy, and leave you feeling satisfied.
Hi Kerstin, Sorry you had issues whipping the whites. It can sometimes be more difficult with the kind from a carton. The cream of tartar helps, but sometimes isn’t enough. Did you wait for the whites to be at room temp before beginning? This can help with whipping. Unfortunately the bread won’t turn out very well without getting the whites to stiff peaks. I hope it works for you next time, and if the cartons don’t work for you, you can try with the whites from whole eggs. You can use the yolks to make hollandaise sauce or creme brulee like this.

Within the healthcare system people with type 2 diabetes are still often given advice on blood sugar-raising foods. It is not uncommon to receive nice, colored folders, like the Swedish one above. In this folder it’s stated that foods that raise blood sugar slowly are good for you. Examples of such foods are said to be fruit, rice, pasta, potatoes and bread!
Just wanted to share that I made this recipe yesterday. I don’t have a lot of success with loaves so I used my bun top pans and the recipe gave me 12 rolls and a small loaf which I cut into 6 slices for a couple of french toast breakfast treats for me! I used a 1/4 cup measure for the rolls (not packed) and pressed the dough into the round shape. I thought I’d only get 6 actual burger buns but they were big enough to carefully slice in half so I got 12! I baked the rolls for 30 min and the loaf for 60. This will be my go to from now on! Thank you!
Ketogenic and low-carbohydrate diets greatly increase reliance on fat oxidation [78–89], which would logically be expected to increase mitochondrial respiration and mtROS production and, in turn, induce mitohormesis. Furthermore, mtROS produced through RET appears to have particular relevance to hormetic adaptation, including increased lifespan [90]. Nutritional ketosis is likely to increase RET by altering the FADH2 to NADH ratio. As the primary source of acetyl CoA shifts from glycolysis to β-oxidation and ketolysis, this ratio increases, more than doubling for β-oxidation of longer-chain fatty acids. Electrons from FADH2 reduce the CoQ pool through complex II and ETF-QO, thereby increasing RET [91, 92]. This induction of RET by alteration of substrate availability can also be influenced by configuration of mtETC complexes into supercomplexes [90]. The greater potential for mtROS production through RET is consistent with evidence of mitochondria producing more H2O2 during oxidation of palmitoyl carnitine versus pyruvate [93, 94]. Furthermore, succinate is generated during ketolysis by succinyl-CoA:3-oxoacid CoA-transferase (SCOT), which also promotes RET by reducing the CoQ pool through complex II. Demonstrating the likely role of RET in mitohormesis, particularly within the context of nutritional ketosis, extension of lifespan in C. elegans through BHB treatment is dependent on both complex I function and expression of bioenergetic and antioxidant proteins [95].
188. Tomas E., Tsao T. S., Saha A. K., et al. Enhanced muscle fat oxidation and glucose transport by ACRP30 globular domain: acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibition and AMP-activated protein kinase activation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2002;99(25):16309–16313. doi: 10.1073/pnas.222657499. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
People with type 1 diabetes do not produce enough insulin, so their bodies are unable to regulate ketones, which can lead to a dangerous environment. Always consult with your doctor if you have diabetes before changing your diet, and look out for warning signs of ketoacidosis including: excessive thirst, increased urination, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, shortness of breath, weakness, fatigue and confusion.

Additional evidence, although disparate and primarily based on neuronal mitochondrial function related to epileptic seizures, further supports the potential for nutritional ketosis to induce mitohormesis [9]. Much of this is based on signal transduction, antioxidant defense, and oxidative capacity, all of which will be discussed in proceeding sections.


How does high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) feel? To maintain the right amount of blood sugar, the body needs insulin, a hormone that delivers this sugar to the cells. When insulin is lacking, blood sugar builds up. We describe symptoms of high blood sugar, including fatigue, weight loss, and frequent urination. Learn who is at risk and when to see a doctor here. Read now
I made this bread several times by grinding the jay robb psyllium husks, but never got a good loaf. Then I bought the now brand psyllium husk powder and it worked without turning purple. I did have to weigh everything and cook it about an hour and a half or longer. When I cooked it the first time it sank in the middle. If you don’t have a vitamin or blend tech this is the way to go.
I made this tonight for the first time and I don’t think I ground my psyllium husk enough because the bread had some “crunchy” parts (and not in a good way). Also, I did get a little sinkage, though not too bad. I also inadvertently added baking soda instead of baking powder, so tried to scoop it out and then add the baking powder. I think ultimately, I had too much. Finally, I felt like it needed more salt. It seemed to lack flavor.
Maya, I can’t tell you how excited I am to find this recipe! I have three young cats who are on a raw diet. In my previous life I was a home economics major and was taught not to waste anything. So from making their raw food I have the byproducts of egg whites and chicken bones and skin. It all gets frozen for future use. I use the bones and skin to make my own bone broth but I have egg whites out the ying yang! They are frozen in jars with the measurement of the contents on the lid. Now I’m going to thaw some and make bread! Have you tried making french toast with this?
Ketosis is the metabolic process of using fat as the primary source of energy instead of carbohydrates. This means your body is directly breaking down its fat stores as energy instead of slowly converting fat and muscle cells into glucose for energy. You enter ketosis when your body doesn’t have enough glucose (carbohydrates) available. The prime function of the ketogenic diet is to put the body in ketosis.

Additional research has raised the possibility that metabolic syndrome adversely affects neurocognitive performance. [70] In particular, metabolic syndrome has been blamed for accelerated cognitive aging. [71] Patients with mental illnesses also face increased cardiometabolic risk due at least in part to socioeconomic factors such as greater poverty and poorer access to medical care. [72, 73]
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314. Wadley G. D., Nicolas M. A., Hiam D. S., McConell G. K. Xanthine oxidase inhibition attenuates skeletal muscle signaling following acute exercise but does not impair mitochondrial adaptations to endurance training. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2013;304(8):E853–E862. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00568.2012. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]


So when i made this bread it didnt really stay the way i wanted it to be because when i took it out it looked like regular bread but after like 5-10 minutes it sunk down and mine turned blueish-purpleish….is that good?? I dont think i will be making this again….and i measured out all the ingredients too so i dont know what i did wrong…. PLEASE HELP!!!!!!!!!!!!!


Several additional rodent studies have shown ketogenic diets to increase protein content of UCPs. However, since mitochondrial function was not measured in these studies, it is not known if uncoupling was affected by these changes in UCP content. In obese mice fed a ketogenic diet (0.4% of energy as carbohydrate), expression of UCP1 and UCP2 increased in adipose and the liver, respectively [148]. Similarly, expression of UCP1 has increased in brown adipose of mice fed a low-carbohydrate diet (18.5% of energy) supplemented with ketone esters (6% w/v) [149]. The increase in hepatic UCP2 expression during a ketogenic diet has been demonstrated by other studies as well [37, 150, 151]. Ketogenic diets also induce expression of UCP3 in skeletal muscle. In rats fed a ketogenic diet (% energy: 78.1 fat, 0 carbohydrate, and 21.9 protein) for 8 weeks, UCP3 expression increased in the soleus but not the extensor digitorum longus, which is consistent with the soleus containing mostly oxidative, type I muscle fibers [152]. In humans, glycogen depleting exercise followed by two days of a low-carbohydrate diet (0.7 g/kg body mass) increased UCP3 expression in the vastus lateralis [153].

Hi Kerstin, Sorry you had issues whipping the whites. It can sometimes be more difficult with the kind from a carton. The cream of tartar helps, but sometimes isn’t enough. Did you wait for the whites to be at room temp before beginning? This can help with whipping. Unfortunately the bread won’t turn out very well without getting the whites to stiff peaks. I hope it works for you next time, and if the cartons don’t work for you, you can try with the whites from whole eggs. You can use the yolks to make hollandaise sauce or creme brulee like this.


As the rate of oxidative phosphorylation approaches the capacity of the mtETC, Δp will increase and facilitate mtROS production [53]. Higher oxidative capacity should therefore decrease the potential for mtROS production and subsequent oxidative damage. Furthermore, greater oxidative capacity may compensate for the resulting decrease in efficiency of ATP production associated with increased mitochondrial uncoupling. Since oxidative phosphorylation occurs exclusively in mitochondria, mitochondrial density is a key determinant of oxidative capacity [154].
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The primary problem in metabolic syndrome is insulin resistance. In the body's attempt to compensate for insulin resistance, extra insulin is produced, leading to elevated insulin levels. The elevated insulin levels can lead, directly or indirectly, to the characteristic metabolic abnormalities seen in these patients. Frequently, the insulin resistance will progress to overt type 2 diabetes, which further increases the risk of cardiovascular complications.
While there’s no such thing as a diabetic diet anymore, there’s only so much your system can handle at once when it comes to foods that turn into sugar quickly. Here’s my advice: deprive yourself of no food, but limit yourself to one carb portion per meal. Carbs tend to be white in color: things made of flour (including pasta), potato, rice, and sugar. Oh, and corn is pale yellow, so it’s a white food, too. If you make sure every meal has only one white food, you’ll lower the blood sugar impact of the entire meal. If you want a baked potato, that’s not the meal to have a dessert with. If you want some ice cream, keep the meal to a pork chop, some green beans, and some cottage cheese (along with cauliflower, the only white-colored food that isn’t on the white foods list).
Hi Maria, I love your bread recipes but can’t get over the one thing, the gritty texture you get in one every couple bites due to the psyllium husk, I have tried different brands and all have it. I haven’t tried Jay Robs yet. But have you tried ground up chia seeds instead by any chance? I read somewhere to just add twice the amount of water. Thanks
PGC-1α coactivates all three known PPAR isoforms (PPARα, PPARδ, and PPARγ) [286]. Although each isoform is expressed in a variety of tissues, PPARα is prominently expressed in the liver, PPARδ in skeletal muscle, the heart, and the pancreas, and PPARγ in adipose [286, 296]. PGC-1α was discovered and named based on its promotion of brown adipose differentiation through coactivation of PPARγ and subsequent induction of mitochondrial biogenesis and UCP1 expression [297]. However, it is the PGC-1α coactivation of PPARα that is responsible for the upregulated transcription of many of the enzymes responsible for increased ketogenesis and fatty acid metabolism in response to a ketogenic diet [120]. Consistent with the role of PGC-1α in inducing mitochondrial biogenesis, it also shifts skeletal muscle fiber composition towards type I [298, 299] and type IIa [299], which are more oxidative. AMPK also contributes to fiber type changes and is required for the transition of highly glycolytic, type IIb fibers to more oxidative, type IIa fibers [276]. Although PGC-1α is primarily known for inducing transcription of nuclear DNA, it may also, in conjunction with SIRT1, induce expression of mtDNA [300].
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Ketones are a special type of fat that can stimulate the pathways that enhance the growth of new neural networks in the brain. A ketogenic diet is one that is high in fats, and this diet has been a tool of researchers for years, used notably in a 2005 study on Parkinson’s patients finding an improvement in symptoms after just 28 days. The improvements were on par with those made possible via medication and brain surgery. Other research has shown the ketogenic diet to be remarkably effective in treating some forms of epilepsy, and even brain tumors.


Well, everyone, I am sensitive to psyllium so I experimented and it kind of worked! I made a half recipe using chia seed I ground in my Vitamix into 5 buns. They didn’t really rise but the flavor was quite good. Might add garlic and onion powder next time. I was able to slice the skinny bun and have a burger on it. Yum! Hadn’t had a burger on a bun for ages! Worth a try! I did weigh everything and was very precise so inaccurate quantities would not be an issue. Maria, any ideas on how to make this mixture rise some? I’m sure I’m not the only one with psyllium issues. Can’t have flax much either and I think if I have the chia too often that will give me tummy trouble also. One more question Maria. Is there a reason for no salt in the egg white protein bread? I don’t really like the flavor or texture but thought salt and seasonings would help. Thank you, Maria! You have made my meals so much more enjoyable! So grateful!
Note that urine measurements may not reflect blood concentrations. Urine concentrations are lower with greater hydration, and after adaptation to a ketogenic diet the amount lost in the urine may drop while the metabolism remains ketotic. Most urine strips only measure acetoacetate, while when ketosis is more severe the predominant ketone body is β-hydroxybutyrate.[36] Unlike glucose, ketones are excreted into urine at any blood level. Ketoacidosis is a metabolic derangement that cannot occur in a healthy individual who can produce insulin, and should not be confused with physiologic ketosis.
Metabolic syndrome is thought to be caused by adipose tissue dysfunction and insulin resistance. Dysfunctional adipose tissue also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity-related insulin resistance. [18] Both adipose cell enlargement and infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue result in the release of proinflammatory cytokines and promote insulin resistance. [19]
The ARC exerts opposing actions on food intake responding not only to leptin and insulin, but also to gut hormones (the most studied are ghrelin and, recently, PYY). The neurophysiological pathways suggest that feeding is regulated by a feedback loop, where the hypothalamus provides the long-term regulatory input to the NTS, which acts as a setpoint (Williams et al., 2001).
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Eat 15 g less carbohydrates at your next meal. While skipping meals is not a healthy option for individuals with high blood sugar, decreasing the number of carbohydrates consumed at the next meal can help force your body to use the excess sugar. Check your blood sugar an hour after the meal and if your sugar level has decreased but is still high, decrease the next meal by 30 g of carbohydrates.
The advice above is therefore not only illogical, but also works poorly. It completely lacks scientific support according to a Swedish expert investigation. On the contrary, in recent years similar carbohydrate-rich dietary advice has been shown to increase the risk of getting diabetes and appears to potentially worsen blood sugar levels long-term in people who already have type 2 diabetes. The advice does not improve their health in other important ways either.
A little more than 9.2% of pregnant women have gestational diabetes. It is very common that all women are tested during their pregnancy. If you haven’t yet, bring it up to your physician’s attention. The cause is really unknown, but doctors believe that it is because the extra hormones that are released during pregnancy hinder the insulin sensitivity and increase the need for more insulin. It is very important to keep blood sugar levels under control because high blood sugars can lead to complications such as:
I LOVE this bread. I’ve made it a ton of times and it never disappoints. In fact, my friend and I like this bread more than any regular grain based bread we’ve ever had. I do have one small problem and was wondering if anyone can tell me what I am doing wrong. No matter how many times I’ve made this bread, the loaf always comes out lop-sided; meaning, it rises on one side more than the other and I cannot for the life of me figure out why. I would love to include a picture to illustrate what I mean, but there is no option to do this. All I can say is one side of the bread rises out above the bread tin more than the other side. I use a smaller loaf tin lined with parchment paper and follow all of the baking instructions to the tee. Any ideas???
I was well aware of the dearth of mainstream knowledge of NK, and particularly the conflation of NK with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a pathologic state that results from the complete or near absence of insulin, which is what prompted my writing and desire to share my journey. And I was once in the wanker category of folks who spoke with “authority” about ketosis, despite knowing somewhere between zero and nothing on the topic. I remember exactly where I was sitting in a clinic at Johns Hopkins in 2002 during my residency explaining to (admonishing, really) a patient who was on the Atkins diet how harmful it was because of DKA. Not only that, the ketogenic diet could be seen as the antithesis of a “healthy” diet by conventional standards. I could see how this was a difficult proposition for many to acknowledge.
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Blood tests often report the level of total cholesterol (HDL + LDL) as well as the levels of each type independently. It is possible that the relative abundance (ratio) of HDL: LDL is more important to predict the occurrence of cardiovascular disease that the total cholesterol level109. Whilst the ketogenic diet can cause an increase in total cholesterol, the ratio of healthy HDL : less healthy LDL generally increases (i.e more HDL)110 whilst following a ketogenic diet. In contrast, whilst total cholesterol tends to be lower whilst following a low fat diet, the ratio of HDL:LDL tends to be lower (i.e more LDL)21. 
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A sustainable exercise program, for example 30 minutes five days a week is reasonable to start, providing there is no medical contraindication. (If you have any special concerns in this regard, check with your doctor first.) There is a beneficial effect of exercise on blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and insulin sensitivity, regardless of whether weight loss is achieved or not. Thus, exercise in itself is a helpful tool in treating metabolic syndrome.

The Service offers health, fitness and nutritional information and is designed for educational purposes only. You should not rely on this information as a substitute for, nor does it replace professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If you have any concerns or questions about your health, you should always consult with a physician or other health-care professional.

300. Aquilano K., Vigilanza P., Baldelli S., Pagliei B., Rotilio G., Ciriolo M. R. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) reside in mitochondria: possible direct function in mitochondrial biogenesis. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2010;285(28):21590–21599. doi: 10.1074/jbc.m109.070169. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
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Forget Atkins and Paleo — the new low-carb diet du jour is called keto, as in ketogenic. Although there are many similarities between these diets, a keto diet is all about restricting carbohydrates and increasing healthy fats. The goal is to force your body’s metabolism into ketosis, which means it burns fat instead of glucose — because without carbs, glucose isn’t readily available.
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