Another aspect of mitochondrial function influenced by ketones is the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Prolonged opening of the mPTP is one of the mechanisms through which mtROS can induce cellular injury and promote disease . In neurons isolated from rat brain slices, treatment with BHB + ACA has decreased the mtROS production, mPTP opening, and cell death induced by H2O2 . This protective effect was duplicated with catalase, even in conjunction with diamide-induced opening of the mPTP, indicating that the protective effect of BHB and ACA is at least partly due to defense against ROS . In a mouse model of epilepsy, this decrease in mPTP opening was found to be induced exclusively by BHB, and in a manner dependent on the cyclophilin D subunit of the mPTP . BHB in combination with ACA also appears to promote opening of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ (mtKATP) channels , which in heart mitochondria is known to protect against Ca+ overload  and dissipate membrane potential (ΔΨ) . Since high ΔΨ promotes mtROS production, dissipation of ΔΨ through mtKATP channels may partly explain the potential for ketones to decrease mtROS production. However, opening of mtKATP channels by pinacidil decreases mitochondrial ATP production , which is consistent with dissipation of ΔΨ and suggests a compromise between ATP and mtROS production.
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As with PGC-1α, nutritional ketosis may activate FOXO3a by increasing activity of AMPK and sirtuins or by decreasing insulin. Expression of FOXO3a is increased by fasting, caloric restriction, and BHB [103, 105], all of which are or can be components of a ketogenic diet. Furthermore, BHB treatment has extended lifespan in C. elegans in a manner dependent on FOXO3a , and a ketogenic diet (% energy: 89 fat, <1 carbohydrate, and 10 protein) has increased median lifespan and decreased tumors and age-associated losses of physical and cognitive performance, all in conjunction with increased hepatic content of FOXO3a .
The Inuit are often cited as an example of a culture that has lived for hundreds of years on a low-carbohydrate diet. However, in multiple studies the traditional Inuit diet has not been shown to be a ketogenic diet. Not only have researchers been unable to detect any evidence of ketosis resulting from the traditional Inuit diet, but the ratios of fatty-acid to glucose were observed at well below the generally accepted level of ketogenesis. Furthermore, studies investigating the fat yields from fully dressed wild ungulates, and the dietary habits of the cultures who rely on them, suggest that they are too lean to support a ketogenic diet. With limited access to fat and carbohydrates, cultures such as the Nunamiut Eskimos—who relied heavily on caribou for subsistence—annually traded for fat and seaweed with coastal-dwelling Taremiut.
AMPK and sirtuins are the interface between the metabolic stimuli of nutritional ketosis and the downstream signaling that influences expression of proteins related to bioenergetics and antioxidant defense. Some of the primary downstream signaling molecules involved include PGC-1α, FOXO3a, nuclear respiratory factors 1 and 2 (NRF-1 and NRF-2), mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), and NFE2L2.
The most common reason that any bread falls is that it needed to bake for longer. That being said, I’ll be perfectly honest – sometimes this keto bread recipe falls anyway, even despite doing everything else right. Fortunately this isn’t a huge deal because it still tastes delicious – IF you baked it for long enough and the center is cooked through.
Yeah, odd prescription, I know, but dog owners are more active than non-dog owners. Why? Well…picture those big, brown, sad eyes pleading with you: Pleeeeeeeeeease take me for a walk. Frankly, most of us have a hard time with self-motivation. We’re tired, overworked, and stressed out—but we’re human beings. There’s a root word of humane in there somewhere. Often, we will do for others what we won’t do for ourselves; and pets are the hardest to say no to, because of the whole issue of interspecies communication. You can rationalize with your kid about why you’re too busy to play in the park with her, but your dog isn’t going to take no for an answer.
Even though intracellular metabolism and activation of the ATP-sensitive K+ channels appear to be necessary for some signaling effects of FAs, a great amount of the FA responses in the ventromedial hypothalamic neurons are mediated by interactions with fatty acid translocase (FAT)/CD36. Translocase is a FA transporter/receptor that activates downstream signaling even in the absence of intracellular metabolism (Moulle et al., 2014).
Like you say on your show, I am a foodie and hate it when recipes on websites turn out tasting bleh. This bread has a great texture. After making it a few times plain now, I added some sesame seeds to the batter and that turned out great too. I make an open faced breakfast sandwich with a slice of this almond flour bread, plenty of cream cheese and scrambled eggs. Paired with coffee. So tasty, that I can’t tell it isn’t a regular scrumptious egg sandwich.
Thank you for the recipe. I was going to give up gluten free bread making but your recipe made my day! I used ghee instead of butter as I was too lazy to melt butter. It rose prettily in the oven. Such a nice loaf of bread. Definitely not eggy and it even has the fluffiness of bread. I would like to double the recipe and make it in a 1 lb loaf pan. Do you think that’s feasible? Many thanks,
In our keto bread recipe, we use a combination of coconut and almond flours so neither is overpowering. We also use a touch of psyllium husk powder to help achieve the right texture. A little bit of beef gelatin acts as a binder and adds bread-like “chew” to the final result. Our recipe only contains egg whites, which add structure and act as a natural leavening agent, but without the eggy flavor that the yolks would add.