In a separate post, I explained the difference between nutritional ketosis (NK) and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). If this distinction is not clear, I’d suggest giving this separate post a quick skim for a refresher.  DKA is a pathologic (i.e., harmful) state that results from the complete or near absence of insulin.  This occurs in the setting of type 1 diabetes or very end-stage type 2 diabetes, and often as the result of a physiologic insult (e.g., an infection) where the patient is not receiving sufficient insulin to bring glucose into his cells.  A person with a normal pancreas, regardless of how long he fasts (including the fellow I reference above who fasted for 382 days!) or how much he restricts carbohydrates, can not enter DKA because even a trace amount of insulin will keep B-OHB levels below about 7 or 8 mM, well below the threshold to develop the pathologic acid-base abnormalities associated with DKA. Let me reiterate, it is physiologically impossible to induce DKA in anyone that does not have T1D or very, very, very late-stage T2D with pancreatic “burnout.”
Ketone esters (BHB-BD) decreases muscle protein breakdown30. Exercise triggers the breakdown of some muscle proteins in order to top up metabolic processes inside the cell. This results in a rise in ‘branched chain amino acid’ levels inside the muscle after exercise. Taking a ketone ester drink before exercise decreased the exercise-induced rise in muscle branched chain amino acid levels. This could help to protect muscle during exercise. 

I was recently diagnosed with diabetes which I had had uncontrolled for an estimated seven years. I have done a lot of research and while there is a lot of diabetes information available, little was helpful for whatever reasons – too simplistic in nature, didn’t answer hard hitting questions, or didn’t apply forward thinking scenarios. This article is one of the best I have read because it is both clear and concise and givens you all of your essential important information in a single place – something everyone needs. Even after all of my research, I still learned a couple new things reading this article. Excellent reference.

Mitochondrial uncoupling is primarily facilitated by uncoupling proteins (UCPs) and adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) [124, 128, 129]. Although UCP1 is primarily expressed in brown adipose, UCP2 is expressed across a wide variety of tissues, and expression of UCP3 appears to be limited to skeletal muscle and the heart [130]. Knockout of UCP2 [131] or UCP3 [94, 132] increases mtROS production, and both proteins are inactivated through glutathionylation by GSH [133], further establishing their involvement in antioxidant defense. UCP2 and UCP3 may also be activated by products of lipid peroxidation induced by mtROS [122]. However, the potential for UCP2 and UCP3 to reduce mtROS through uncoupling is not fully agreed upon; [128] UCPs may alternatively protect against oxidative damage merely by exporting lipid hydroperoxides [128]. Furthermore, UCP3 is less abundant in type I and type IIa muscle fibers [134], which are more oxidative, and its expression and content are further decreased by endurance exercise training [135, 136], suggesting that UCP3 may not be a primary defense against mtROS.


I’m following the ketogenic diet and I find it very easy, pleasant and varied. I can even say that my diet today is more varied than the previous one. I do not intend to leave this diet and I cannot really see why. My initial focus was not to lose weight, I’ve always been lean, but to feel better, well disposed. And I got it! I am very pleased, I have read a lot about it (including scientific literature) and I have influenced other people who need to lose weight or improve some aspects of their health. But from the beginning I went on my own way, without the help of a nutritionist because I did not want to suffer the influence of others’ ideas.

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Exogenous ketones: Very little is known about the effects of exogenous ketones on cancer. However, as exogenous ketones can also lower blood sugar and elevate BHB they could be helpful by a similar mechanism to the ketogenic diet. Exogenous ketones may even be preferable to the ketogenic diet, as patients can eat a wider range of palatable and calorically dense food to maintain their strength during treatment. One animal study showed that ketone ester supplementation (acetoacetate diester) decreased tumour size and prolonged the survival of mice with metastatic cancer100. 
Fortunately, since peaking in 2001-2002, the overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the United States has fallen, primarily due to decreases in the prevalences of hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension—and in spite of increases in the prevalences of hyperglycemia and obesity/waist circumference. [27]  Data from the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) showed that the age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome had fallen to approximately 24% in men and 22% in women. [28]
*This post may contain affiliate links to products we believe in, which means that even though it doesn’t cost you anything extra, The Keto Queens will receive a small amount of money from the sale of these items. Also, please know that nutritional information is provided as a courtesy calculated from the nutrition plugin API and we cannot guarantee its accuracy
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