The gut-brain link is important not only for the hormones produced by the gut, but also for the long-term body weight regulation. Studies in mice indicate that the gut microbiome influences both sides of the energy balance by contributing to nutrient absorption and regulating host genes that affect adiposity [however there are conflicting reports (Parks et al., 2013; Schele et al., 2013)]. However, it remains uncertain just how important gut microbiota are for nutrient absorption in humans. A cohort study has demonstrated that the nutrient load is a key variable that can influence the gut/fecal bacterial content over short time frames. Furthermore, the observed associations between gut microbes and nutrient absorption indicates a possible role of the human gut microbiota in the regulation of the nutrient intake and utilization (Jumpertz et al., 2011).
Heat a large non-stick skillet over medium heat.  Mix all of the ingredients for the pancakes into a small bowl.  Spray the skillet with cooking spray and spoon the batter into 4 round pancakes in the skillet.  Let the pancakes cook until bubbles start to form in the batter around the side.  Flip and continue to cook on the other side until the center on the pancake springs back when lightly touched.

[…] One of the things I’ve grown to love over the years is fried eggs with runny yolks. They’ve become a regular breakfast for me on the weekends. However, when I do regular low carb high fat meals, I like to have toast to dip into the egg yolks. Psyllium low carb bread seems to be all the rage right now, so I came up with this coconut flour psyllium husk bread that is perfect with my morning eggs. I’m not really sure who started the low carb psyllium bread trend, but one of the first breads I’ve found was Maria Emmerich’s Amazing Bread. […]
To encourage ketone production, the amount of insulin in your bloodstream must be low. The lower your insulin, the higher your ketone production. And when you have a well-controlled, sufficiently large amount of ketones in your blood, it’s basically proof that your insulin is very low – and therefore, that you’re enjoying the maximum effect of your low-carbohydrate diet. That’s what’s called optimal ketosis.
Have breakfast within an hour or two of waking up and then eat a snack or meal every three to six hours after that, says Rebecca Denison, RD, doctor of integrative medicine and diabetes educator at Greater Baltimore Medical Center’s Geckle Diabetes and Nutrition Center. This will add up to three to six total meals and snacks daily. It takes about four to six hours for your body to digest a meal. “You want to eat just a teeny bit before you actually need it so that your body doesn’t have to figure out how to keep your blood sugar stable,” Denison explains.
Like fiber and protein, fat buffers blood sugar spikes. In fact, unsaturated fats have been specifically linked to improved insulin resistance. Just be sure to avoid refined fats, including trans fats and processed vegetable oils, like corn, soybean, and safflower oils, which can be pro-inflammatory. Sources of quality fats to consider adding to your diet include: nuts, olive oil, ghee, coconut oil, avocado, and fatty fish like salmon.
The occurrence of mitohormesis is further supported by the potential for mtROS to simultaneously induce bioenergetic and antioxidant adaptations through a single signaling mediator. As discussed later in this review, this mediator is the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), and its role in simultaneously inducing bioenergetic and antioxidant adaptations has been demonstrated in several experimental models of mtROS production, including treatments with paraquat and H2O2. Paraquat is an herbicide that is reduced by the mtETC and subsequently initiates mtROS production by reacting with O2 to produce O2•− [74, 75], and H2O2 is a common form of mtROS. Treatment of a fibroblast cell line (10T1/2) with H2O2 has induced expression of both antioxidant enzymes (SOD1, SOD2, and GPx1) and proteins involved in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, all in a manner largely dependent on PGC-1α [76]. Demonstrating the hormetic benefit of this response in a variety of brain cells, overexpression of PGC-1α protected against cell death induced by H2O2 or paraquat treatment, and this occurred in conjunction with changes in gene expression similar to those observed with the 10T1/2 cells [76]. Although the central role of PGC-1α in linking mitochondrial bioenergetics with antioxidant defense appears to not have been thoroughly investigated in vivo, some suggestive evidence does exist. In skeletal muscle of mice treated with paraquat, content of proteins involved in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and uncoupling have been found to increase in conjunction with greater nuclear localization of PGC-1α [77]. Traditional antioxidant proteins were not measured, but, as will be discussed later, the increase in uncoupling proteins can be regarded as an indication of enhanced antioxidant defense based on the potential of these proteins to decrease mtROS production.

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Other mechanisms that have been suggested include: changes in ATP production making neurons more resilient in the face of metabolic demands, altered brain pH affecting neuronal activity, direct inhibitory effects of ketone bodies or fatty acids on ion channels, alterations in amino acid metabolism, and changes in synthesis of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. (10)
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Our bodies need sugar to make energy for the cells. Without it, we cannot do basic functions. When we eat foods with glucose, insulin pairs with it to allow it to enter into the cell wall. If the insulin is not there, then the glucose molecule can’t get through the wall and cannot be used. The extra glucose hangs out in the bloodstream which is literally high blood sugar.

Cheryl, We use beef gelatin in this recipe to act as a binder and add a bit more chewiness to help simulate regular bread. (If you’re interested, we talk more about using beef gelatin in keto baking in this post: https://theketoqueens.com/crispy-low-carb-indian-flatbread-recipe/.) We haven’t experimented with this recipe to omit the beef gelatin, but you might be able to get a similar result using a bit more psyllium husk powder, flaxseed meal, ground chia seeds, xanthan gum, or guar gum. If you decide to play around with the recipe, please let us know how it goes!
Hi John, You could possible try a hand mixer in a bowl instead of the food processor, but I haven’t tried it, so can’t vouch for the results. Most likely the bread would not be as tall because the mixer would completely deflate the first half of the egg whites when you add them to the batter. The second half should be folded so that part will be find. If you try with a bowl and hand mixer, let me know how that goes.
The key sign of metabolic syndrome is central obesity, also known as visceral, male-pattern or apple-shaped adiposity. It is characterized by adipose tissue accumulation predominantly around the waist and trunk.[5] Other signs of metabolic syndrome include high blood pressure, decreased fasting serum HDL cholesterol, elevated fasting serum triglyceride level, impaired fasting glucose, insulin resistance, or prediabetes. Associated conditions include hyperuricemia; fatty liver (especially in concurrent obesity) progressing to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; polycystic ovarian syndrome in women and erectile dysfunction in men; and acanthosis nigricans.
In the previously described C. elegans experiments demonstrating mitohormesis, knockout of the NFE2L2 homologue SKN-1 attenuated the increases in antioxidant enzyme activity and lifespan [73], indicating that mitohormesis may, at least in part, be dependent on NFE2L2 signaling. Similarly, a ketogenic diet (Bio-Serv F3666) increased nuclear content of NFE2L2 and expression of its target NQO1 in the hippocampi of rats, all of which occurred after an initial increase in mtROS [96]. This increase in NFE2L2 content appears to have mediated the subsequent decrease in mtROS to a level below baseline [96], thereby further indicating a likely role of NFE2L2 in the induction of mitohormesis during a ketogenic diet.
Type II diabetics can reduce their risk of developing these complications by keeping blood glucose levels within a healthy range (4.5 - 6.5 mM). This can be achieved using insulin injections, but using insulin is not without side effects (i.e hypoglycemia requiring assistance and weight gain)101. Therefore dietary carbohydrate restriction is likely to be a good lifestyle change to help with diabetes management,. Companies such as Virta Health are popularising this approach to diabetes management and pioneering the use of technology to improve compliance. The benefits of carbohydrate restriction include:
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In recent times there has been an exponential increase in the rates of obesity and diabetes. Popular opinion has blamed (in turn) overconsumption of fat, overconsumption of carbs and sugar and overconsumption of calories. Whilst the overall calorie balance is a crucial factor that cannot be overlooked, it is also the case that different macronutrients in the diet (especially carbs and fat) have different effects on the body when consumed.  
Mohanraj, R., & Sivasankar, S. (2014, June). Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam) – a valuable medicinal food: A review.  Journal of Medicinal Food, 17(7), 733–741. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Remya_Mohanraj2/publication/263096030_Sweet_Potato_Ipomoea_batatas_L_Lam_-_A_Valuable_Medicinal_Food_A_Review/links/54ee2b8b0cf2e55866f22c1a.pdf
I just made it using all the the optional ingredients but I didn’t have a food processor so I whipped/mixed everything by hand. One thing I noticed is that the top of the bread cracked unevenly. Could I have over fluffed the egg whites? Maybe creating an artificial cut in the middle could solve that next time? It rose very well and nearly doubled in size, though the size is still a bit small for my liking. I will most likely use 1.5x the amount next time. It smells great and I’m about to chow down on this!
Most of these side effects happen completely “in your head” — they’re literally caused by your brain. See, every healthy cell in your body except brain cells can derive energy from one of three sources: glucose, ketone bodies and fatty acids (for a short period of time). However, your brain can’t utilize fatty acids since they don’t cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). When you’ve restricted glucose intake and before your liver starts producing ample ketone bodies, your brain thinks it’s running out of energy, leading to at least a few days of uncomfortable keto flu side effects. (2)
Hi Mindy, That sounds very odd. The salted butter is probably why it was too salty, but I think one of your ingredients must have gone bad, because the bread shouldn’t have a bitter or sour taste at all. Or did you use baking soda instead of baking powder? That would taste both bitter and sour, so that could be it. It needs to be baking powder, not baking soda. Hope you’ll try again!

82. Schwarz J. M., Neese R. A., Turner S., Dare D., Hellerstein M. K. Short-term alterations in carbohydrate energy intake in humans. Striking effects on hepatic glucose production, de novo lipogenesis, lipolysis, and whole-body fuel selection. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 1995;96(6):2735–2743. doi: 10.1172/jci118342. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
If there’s one thing keto dieters miss when they're trying to enjoy brunch, it’s those damn roasted potatoes. Yet you can dig into these "potatoes"—a.k.a. turnips—by Cast Iron Keto. They have so much flavor from paprika, garlic powder, salt, and pepper and only 4 grams of net carbs—you won’t even miss the real thing. Pair with eggs, fish, or meat for extra protein, and you’re set. (Though there is some bacon already!)
Hands down, the absolute best low carb bread recipe ever!!! I made it last night and I am blown away!!! I’ve tried a lot of low carb bread recipes trying to find something close to the “carby” bread I once loved, and you have solved my dilemma. This bread is better than the carb-laden kind (in my opinion) and I am so happy to be able to enjoy toast, sandwiches and any other idea that comes to my mind for utilizing this bread. I can’t wait to make another batch because I didn’t leave this one in quite long enough, but I am certain of it’s potential! God bless you.
The first step—the mantra of dLife from the very beginning—is test, don’t guess! To master your blood sugar, you must first know where it is. And if you only check first thing in the morning, you’re cheating at solitaire. If you want to truly master your blood sugar, you should fearlessly seek out your very worst, highest numbers. That means checking after meals. Don’t let that high number flashing on your meter get you down. Rejoice that you’ve found it. It’s just a problem to be fixed—and as you roll out the rest of these tips, those high numbers, like the walls of Jericho, are going to come a-tumblin’ down.
I waited awhile to try this, certain it would be blah but decided to give it a go. I did add a pinch of salt and I used Brummel and brown butter, made with yogurt, as it lowered the fat and calories. toasted and spread some sugar free strawberry preserves. really good! texture took a bit to get used to but so excited to be able to eat bread! not on keto but recently diagnosed as diabetic so bread is a nono bc of all the carbs.
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