Normally, the body breaks down carbohydrates, fat, and (sometimes) proteins to provide energy. When carbohydrate is consumed in the diet, some is used immediately to maintain blood glucose levels, and the rest is stored. The hormone that signals to cells to store carbohydrate is insulin. The liver stores carbohydrate as glycogen, this is broken down and released between meals to keep blood glucose levels constant. Muscles also store glycogen, when broken down this provides fuel for exercise. Most cells in the body can switch readily between using carbohydrates and fat as fuel. Fuel used depends on substrate availability, on the energy demands of the cell and other neural and hormonal signals. 
According to most experts on the ketogenic diet, technically nutritional ketosis is defined by serum ketone levels (the amount of ketones in the blood) that fall between 0.5 to 3.0 mM. (3) Some believe that 1.5 – 3 mmol/L is “optimal ketosis,” which might contribute to the most weight loss. Every person is a bit different in terms of what exact macronutrient ratio will keep them in this range, while also allowing them to feel their best in terms of energy levels and other symptoms. You can experiment with different carb amounts while testing to see how this affects your ketone levels, aiming to remain in nutritional ketosis (0.5 to 3.0 mM), as long as you feel well doing so. Try to test at the same time each day for consistency and avoid testing right after exercise.
Oatmeal is the ultimate morning meal in the winter months—and anytime your soul needs something warm. Ruled.me’s breakfast porridge makes that experience possible on a keto diet. Instead of your usual oats, it’s made with flaxseed meal and coconut flour, and sweetened with erythritol, to keep sugar and carb counts low. (The texture feels something like cream of wheat.)
PGC-1α coactivates all three known PPAR isoforms (PPARα, PPARδ, and PPARγ) [286]. Although each isoform is expressed in a variety of tissues, PPARα is prominently expressed in the liver, PPARδ in skeletal muscle, the heart, and the pancreas, and PPARγ in adipose [286, 296]. PGC-1α was discovered and named based on its promotion of brown adipose differentiation through coactivation of PPARγ and subsequent induction of mitochondrial biogenesis and UCP1 expression [297]. However, it is the PGC-1α coactivation of PPARα that is responsible for the upregulated transcription of many of the enzymes responsible for increased ketogenesis and fatty acid metabolism in response to a ketogenic diet [120]. Consistent with the role of PGC-1α in inducing mitochondrial biogenesis, it also shifts skeletal muscle fiber composition towards type I [298, 299] and type IIa [299], which are more oxidative. AMPK also contributes to fiber type changes and is required for the transition of highly glycolytic, type IIb fibers to more oxidative, type IIa fibers [276]. Although PGC-1α is primarily known for inducing transcription of nuclear DNA, it may also, in conjunction with SIRT1, induce expression of mtDNA [300].

Can you put any yeast in the mixture? And if you did, would it help it rise more in addition to tasing more “yeasty”? I have been making (with great results) a browner, wheat colored bread from a recipe called Diedre’s For Real Low Carb Bread. It uses yeast and only has one rise after kneading with my dough hook attachment on my mixer. I would like to try some white bread.


Hey Maria, I am baking my third loaf of your amazing bread. I’ve been having trouble with it rising and keeping risen, but it is still delicious. This time it has risen to new heights and I’m hoping it stay high. I don’t usually make comments because I almost always make changes to recipes. I added onion powder, garlic powder and caraway seeds. It bothers me when people give recipes poor ratings after they have changed them. Anyway, the reason for my comment is to thank you and tell you how brilliant, amazing and stupendous you are. Using psyllium is genius. I have been making various low carb breads for years, some that I invented, others not. Anyway, nothing I have made has ever come close to the taste or texture of yours. Thank you, thank you, thank you.
300. Aquilano K., Vigilanza P., Baldelli S., Pagliei B., Rotilio G., Ciriolo M. R. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) reside in mitochondria: possible direct function in mitochondrial biogenesis. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2010;285(28):21590–21599. doi: 10.1074/jbc.m109.070169. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
I was reading through the comments on this recipe and noticed a number of posts by people who were disappointed because they had followed the recipe to the letter and the bread still didn’t turn out like yours. You did your best to help them sort out what the problem might be, but there were two issues that I didn’t see addressed that might make a difference: altitude and relative humidity. I live in Irvington, Alabama (near Mobile). I have been baking gluten-free for over twenty years and I realized long ago that nearly every recipe I used from Bette Hagman’s books had to be adjusted or they wouldn’t turn out. Then I remembered something from my earlier baking days using wheat flour. Most of the recipes I used noted that liquids and leavening have to be adjusted based on altitude and relative humidity to get recipes to rise properly and to avoid gumminess. That is, if you live at a much higher or lower altitude than Maria, or you live in a much wetter or drier climate, you will have to tweak the liquids and leavening to suit the area where you live. Start with about two tablespoons less water if you’re getting gummy results. Start with about one teaspoon less baking powder if your bread is rising too fast and forming a bubble. I imagine getting this recipe to work is like making any other kind of bread; after you’ve made it come out right a few times, you get a feel for what the dough should look/feel like in order to turn out.

One of the hardest things to do when I travel is to find something to take for lunch OTHER than salads–that gets old fast! This will be a HUGE help so that I can add “bread” back into my lunch menus! Thank you VERY much! So fast, so easy, and VERY usable for those of us stuck in hotel rooms with limited options for eating in. It really does have the texture of whole-grain type of bread!! You’re a life saver! 😀
To encourage ketone production, the amount of insulin in your bloodstream must be low. The lower your insulin, the higher your ketone production. And when you have a well-controlled, sufficiently large amount of ketones in your blood, it’s basically proof that your insulin is very low – and therefore, that you’re enjoying the maximum effect of your low-carbohydrate diet. That’s what’s called optimal ketosis.

White mulberry (Moruns alba or Morus indica) has been traditionally used in Asia to help treat type 2 diabetes, and there is some preliminary evidence to support this use. Mulberry leaf extract (species not given) may lessen increases in blood sugar after ingestion of table sugar in healthy people and people with type 2 diabetes (Mudra, Diabetes Care 2007). Among people with type 2 diabetes, taking 1 gram of powdered white mulberry leaf three times daily (after breakfast, lunch and dinner) for four weeks was found to lower fasting blood sugar by 27%, while taking 5 mg of the anti-diabetes drug glibenclamide lowered fasting blood sugar by only 8% (Andallu, Clin Chim Acta 2001).
thanks for your reply, maria! i can’t figure out why mine tastes so vinegar-y while no one else has had this problem. could it be the type of vinegar i’m using? It’s trader joe’s organic ACV. could i just reduce the amount of vinegar? or, in your baking experience, do you think i could i use lemon juice as the acid in place of the vinegar (or a mix of the two)? i think i could stand a lemon taste better than a vinegar taste…
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is the commonly observed clustering of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. The components of MetS occur together more often than expected by chance and display significant heritability. Investigations into monogenic diseases that model features of the common MetS have uncovered responsible genes. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of the components of the MetS have been enormously successful. Meta-analysis of public GWAS data and risk-score analysis are revealing the role of common single-nucleotide polymorphism genotypes in MetS pathophysiology. A pleotropic polygenic architecture underlies MetS, making it a fascinating complex trait. Research will continue to uncover how metabolic pathways interact to form the MetS and its subsequent risk for atherosclerosis and diabetes.
^ Jump up to: a b c Vemuri VK, Janero DR, Makriyannis A (March 2008). "Pharmacotherapeutic targeting of the endocannabinoid signaling system: drugs for obesity and the metabolic syndrome". Physiology & Behavior. 93 (4–5): 671–86. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2007.11.012. PMC 3681125. PMID 18155257. The etiology of many appetitive disorders is characterized by a pathogenic component of reward-supported craving, be it for substances of abuse (including alcohol and nicotine) or food. Such maladies affect large numbers of people as prevalent socioeconomic and healthcare burdens. Yet in most instances drugs for their safe and effective pharmacotherapeutic management are lacking despite the attendant medical needs, collateral adverse physical and psychological effects, and enormous global market potential. The endocannabinoid signaling system plays a critical role in motivational homeostasis as a conduit for reward stimuli and a positive modulator of brain reward circuits. Endocannabinoid-system hyperactivity through CB1 receptor transmission is considered contributory to a range of appetitive disorders and, hence, is a major focus of contemporary pharmaceutical research.
People who have metabolic syndrome typically have apple-shaped bodies, meaning they have larger waists and carry a lot of weight around their abdomens. It's thought that having a pear-shaped body — that is, carrying more of your weight around your hips and having a narrower waist — doesn't increase your risk of diabetes, heart disease and other complications of metabolic syndrome.
To think of it another way, if you start with stored energy – glucose or fat, for example, which if burned in calorimeter will give off varying amounts of heat – and you’re willing to convert their carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen molecules into another form with less energy – water and carbon dioxide which, if burned, produce very little heat – it’s a fair trade!  The ETC is simply the vehicle that allows our body to make the switch.
Ceejoy – Please don’t give into fear mongering. There is nothing wrong with the microwave. It is 100% safe to use. If you still want to not use one, that’s your choice but please don’t spread incorrect information and try and get people to be fearful of something that is safe. If you have any legit studies to prove this (recent ones) please share those.
What is the link between ketones and diabetes? Ketone is a chemical produced by the body when fats are broken down for energy. Ketone testing is important for people with diabetes, because high levels can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), when acid levels become too high in the blood and the person loses consciousness. Find out when and why to do ketone testing. Read now
Metabolic syndrome is a collection of heart disease risk factors that increase your chance of developing heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. The condition is also known by other names including Syndrome X, insulin resistance syndrome, and dysmetabolic syndrome. According to a national health survey, more than 1 in 5 Americans has metabolic syndrome. The number of people with metabolic syndrome increases with age, affecting more than 40% of people in their 60s and 70s.
Hi there, how many slices you get really depends on the kind of loaf pan you use. I find I get around 20 slices for a bread made in the regular loaf pan (though with this recipe they will be rectangular rather than square) and 12-14 slices using a small loaf pan as described in the post. That’s why I decided to state a portion size – 12 per bread. 1 portion = 0.6 net carbs
A little more than 9.2% of pregnant women have gestational diabetes. It is very common that all women are tested during their pregnancy. If you haven’t yet, bring it up to your physician’s attention. The cause is really unknown, but doctors believe that it is because the extra hormones that are released during pregnancy hinder the insulin sensitivity and increase the need for more insulin. It is very important to keep blood sugar levels under control because high blood sugars can lead to complications such as:
Magnesium seems to be of particular importance when it comes to keeping blood sugar balanced. Deficiencies in this mineral have been linked to an increased risk of diabetes, and one study found that people with the highest magnesium intake were 47 percent less likely to develop diabetes. Supplementing with magnesium has also been shown to lower blood sugar and improve insulin sensitivity. Making a point to consume plenty of magnesium-rich foods—leafy green veggies like spinach and Swiss chard, pumpkin seeds, almonds, black beans, dark chocolate, and avocado—is smart in general, as magnesium plays a role in over 300 biochemical reactions in the body. Nosh on some chromium-rich foods like broccoli, barley, and oats, while you’re at it. One study found that the combined effects of chromium and magnesium were more beneficial than either mineral alone.
I made this over the weekend. I weighed all of my ingredients and it looked beautiful when it came out of the oven. I baked it for the 75 minutes. It fell after it cooled and when I cut it open, it was purple and a little gummy even after 75 minutes of baking time. After toasting the slices, it tasted very good and I even served it to company. The kids all thought it was cool that the bread was purple. Should I reduce the water? If so, by how much? I will try and get Jay Robb psyllium husk powder in the future. I used Vitacost brand and it tasted fine but, it is not always easy to get people to try purple bread. Thanks for the recipe. We will be making purple bread until we run out of the psyllium husk powder we have.
170. Garbow J. R., Doherty J. M., Schugar R. C., et al. Hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and ER stress in mice maintained long term on a very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet. American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. 2011;300(6):G956–G967. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00539.2010. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
Our keto bread recipe has a beautiful golden crust. It has great structure with a lovely rise and perfect bread-like crumb. It slices well for sandwiches or toasting, but you don’t have to toast or grill it to make it taste good. Sliced with a smear of salted butter is keto perfection. And it actually tastes like bread, not eggs or almonds or coconut. Additionally, this bread will keep well wrapped in the fridge for up to a week!
×