This poses a real evolutionary dilemma.  We need an enormous amount of energy just to not die, but the single most important organ in our body (also quite energy hungry in its own right) can’t access the most abundant source of energy in our body (i.e., fat) and is, instead, almost solely dependent on the one macronutrient we can’t store beyond a trivial amount (i.e., glucose). Obviously our species wouldn’t be here today if this were the end of the story. But, to understand how we survived requires one more trip down biochemistry memory lane.  In the figure below (also included and described in the video) I gloss over a pretty important detail.
As you may recall, about 60% of the energy we expend, say 1,800 kcal/day for someone consuming 3,000 kcal/day in weight balance, is purely devoted to keeping us alive by generating enough ATP (“energy currency”) to do 2 things: allow ion gradients to function and allow muscular relaxation.  So, obviously, we can’t tolerate – literally even for one minute – insufficient ATP production.  In fact, one of the most potent toxins known to man (cyanide) exerts its effect on this process by inhibiting the electron transport chain which generates the bulk of the ATP our body produces.  Even the most transient interruption of this process is fatal.

Appetite regulation: One of the first things people notice when they’re in ketosis is that they’re no longer hungry all the time. In fact, research has shown that being in ketosis suppresses appetite. One study looked at people who lost weight by following a ketogenic diet for eight weeks and then reintroduced small amounts of carbs. The researchers reported that the levels of ghrelin (the “hunger hormone”) were suppressed in those who remained in ketosis, whereas those who were no longer in ketosis had higher ghrelin levels.

Thank you for the terrific recipe. I must admit that this really turned out to be “oopsie bread” for me. Due to the expensive nature of the recipe (organic eggs, almond flour, grass fed butter) I really attempted to follow the recipe perfectly instead of going with my usual improvisational style. I also do not have a food processor however that did not impede anything… a hand mixer and a deft hand did the trick. I did add the optional xanthum gum and erythritol but not the cream of tartar. The batter filled my silicone loaf pan to the top, I smoothed it out and popped it into the oven. Then, to my horror, I saw the little pot of melted butter still on the stovetop. There was nothing to be done except cross my fingers and hope for the best.
I have made your sub bread a few times with not good results. Tasted ok but it was gummy in the middle. Tonight I made the bread and it looked beautiful in the oven but when I took it out it deflated and was completely hollow in the middle. lol. This time I weighed everything to the T. I used Honeyville almond flour, liquid egg whites, and psyllium powder. Think I will skip trying the bread and try the sub bread again one more time. Probably made the sub bread 4x and all times came out gummy….grrrr. Hate to give up because the taste was good. Any suggestions??
342. Virbasius J. V., Scarpulla R. C. Activation of the human mitochondrial transcription factor A gene by nuclear respiratory factors: a potential regulatory link between nuclear and mitochondrial gene expression in organelle biogenesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 1994;91(4):1309–1313. doi: 10.1073/pnas.91.4.1309. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

Not quite sure if I’m doing it wrong but the mixture isn’t liquidy at all, it’s almost dry, it’s a bit difficult to mix and I had to add a tablespoon of water to even mix it. It didn’t come out fluffy looking like yours did, it’s rather dense (I guess from overmixing), but it doesn’t taste bad. I also added a pinch of oregano, cumin and garlic powder. I toasted it and had some hummus with it. 🙂 Any idea how to fix the batter or what I’m doing wrong?
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Acetyl-CoA can be metabolized through the TCA in any cell, but it can also undergo a different process in liver cells: ketogenesis, which produces ketone bodies.[27] Ketone bodies are also produced in mitochondria, and usually occur in response to low blood glucose levels.[28] When glucose levels are low, oxaloacetate is diverted away from the TCA cycle and is instead used to produce glucose de novo (gluconeogenesis). But when oxaloacetate is unavailable to condense with acetyl-CoA, acetyl-CoA cannot enter the cycle, and so the body has evolved an alternative way to harvest energy from it.
Hi Amber, Yes, the baking powder and egg whites do help it rise a bit, just not as much as regular bread. It’s hard to say what went wrong, if anything. Everyone’s palate is a little different, so it’s possible you just didn’t like it, or maybe something didn’t go as it should have. It could be that the batter and whites weren’t folded together quite enough?

In addition to increased mitochondrial demand and mtROS production, there are several other commonalities in the mechanisms through which exercise and nutritional ketosis induce adaptive signaling. Exercise-induced activation of AMPK is greater when the exercise is performed in a glycogen depleted state [209–211, 382, 383], and exercise-induced activation of p38 MAPK [315] and PGC-1α [277–279] occurs at least partly through β-adrenergic signaling. Although changes in NAD+ and NADH are difficult to measure and are complicated by conflicting results, exercise is also likely to increase sirtuin activation by increasing the NAD+ to NADH ratio [402].
If you divide the dough in 3 you’ll cook the bread for 90 seconds on high, but if you cook it all together you’ll want to do 150 seconds (2 1/2 minutes). Either way, it’ll come out looking pale and spongy (and not very appetizing at all tbh!). But worry not, just wait for it to cool down until just lightly warm (it continues to cook guys!), and then you’ll definitely want to give it a toast to get some texture on.
Whether ketosis is taking place can be checked by using special urine test strips. The strips have a small pad on the end, which the user dips in a fresh urine specimen. Within seconds, the strip changes color to indicate the level of acetoacetate ketone bodies, which reflects the degree of ketonuria, which, in turn, gives a rough estimate of the level of hyperketonemia in the body (see table below). Alternatively, some products targeted to diabetics such as the Abbott Precision Xtra or the Nova Max can be used to take a blood sample and measure the β-hydroxybutyrate ketone levels directly. Normal serum reference ranges for ketone bodies are 0.5–3.0 mg/dL, equivalent to 0.05–0.29 mmol/L.[29]
In low carb and keto baking, we’re concerned with two things: 1) keeping carbs low, and 2) still achieving a baked good that has great flavor and texture (because if we can’t gag it down there’s just no point, right? Lol). Low carb bread recipes are usually gluten free and grain free (although we’ve seen a couple that use oat fiber), but then the challenge is to get creative to get the right combination of ingredients to yield something that rises properly and tastes good.
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