There is debate regarding whether obesity or insulin resistance is the cause of the metabolic syndrome or if they are consequences of a more far-reaching metabolic derangement. A number of markers of systemic inflammation, including C-reactive protein, are often increased, as are fibrinogen, interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and others. Some have pointed to a variety of causes, including increased uric acid levels caused by dietary fructose.[18][19][20]
The Mediterranean diet is palatable and easily sustained. In addition, recent studies have shown that when compared to a low fat diet, people on the Mediterranean diet have a greater decrease in body weight, and also had greater improvements in blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and other markers of heart disease -- all of which are important in evaluating and treating metabolic syndrome.
Whether ketosis is taking place can be checked by using special urine test strips. The strips have a small pad on the end, which the user dips in a fresh urine specimen. Within seconds, the strip changes color to indicate the level of acetoacetate ketone bodies, which reflects the degree of ketonuria, which, in turn, gives a rough estimate of the level of hyperketonemia in the body (see table below). Alternatively, some products targeted to diabetics such as the Abbott Precision Xtra or the Nova Max can be used to take a blood sample and measure the β-hydroxybutyrate ketone levels directly. Normal serum reference ranges for ketone bodies are 0.5–3.0 mg/dL, equivalent to 0.05–0.29 mmol/L.[29]
Ketone esters (BHB-BD) decreases muscle protein breakdown30. Exercise triggers the breakdown of some muscle proteins in order to top up metabolic processes inside the cell. This results in a rise in ‘branched chain amino acid’ levels inside the muscle after exercise. Taking a ketone ester drink before exercise decreased the exercise-induced rise in muscle branched chain amino acid levels. This could help to protect muscle during exercise. 
I’m here to testify about the great work Dr Oniha did for me. I have been suffering from (HERPES) disease for the past 5 years and had constant pain, especially in my knees. During the first year,I had faith in God that i would be healed someday.This disease started circulating all over my body and i have been taking treatment from my doctor, few weeks ago i came across a testimony of one lady on the internet testifying about a Man called Dr Oniha on how he cured her from Herpes Simplex Virus. And she also gave the email address of this man and advise anybody to contact him for help for any kind of sickness that he would be of help, so I emailed him telling him about my (HERPES Virus) he told me not to worry that i was going to be cured!! Well i never believed it,, well after all the procedures and remedy given to me by this man few weeks later i started experiencing changes all over me as Dr Oniha assured me that i will be cured,after some time i went to my doctor to confirmed if i have be finally healed behold it was TRUE, So friends my advise is if you have such sickness or any other at all you can contact Dr Oniha via email onihaherbalhome@ gmail.com. You can also call his telephone number +1 669 221 3962. Thanks once again Dr Oniha….

More definitive evidence that metabolic syndrome per se predisposes to coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease has been reported. Thus a twofold to fourfold increase in subsequent cardiovascular events has been described in men and women with metabolic syndrome (modified WHO criteria) even in the absence of type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance.234-236 Qualitatively, similar results have been obtained when metabolic syndrome was defined by ATP III criteria237,238 (Fig. 43-9). In a compilation of multiple studies, the presence of metabolic syndrome had a greater impact on the risk for developing diabetes (fivefold) than ASCVD (twofold).22,182,199 In addition, where studied, the rate of cardiovascular events was higher in patients who had diabetes and metabolic syndrome than in individuals with only metabolic syndrome.22,239
The alternative is to perform studies were participants undergo nutrition counseling, follow a specifically prescribed diet and self-report their food intake. The advantage is that these kinds of studies can be of long duration, so it is possible to study long-term effects – assuming people are actually eating what you’re telling them to. Of course, they don’t.
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What is the link between ketones and diabetes? Ketone is a chemical produced by the body when fats are broken down for energy. Ketone testing is important for people with diabetes, because high levels can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), when acid levels become too high in the blood and the person loses consciousness. Find out when and why to do ketone testing. Read now
Maria, I made your bread using NOW psyllium, it tastes more like a loaf of real bread than anything I’ve tried. It’s lots better than the pricey Low Carb Bread Company loaves that I have been buying on Netrition. I had previously tried a similar recipe that had coconut flour, and even though I added quite a bit of onion powder, the coconut flavor was still distinguishable, and I’m not a fan.
Therefore the combustion enthalpy (∆H) of each fuel is an important factor in the energy it can provide to the cell. When expressed as the energy per 2 carbons in the molecule, ketones (BHB) have a higher combustion enthalpy (∆H) than pyruvate, lactate and glucose (see table). This means that the amount of energy that could possibly be transferred to ATP is higher than for those other substrates:

I contracted hsv from my ex partner we broke up the relationship about four years ago, I has been on treatment for some years, I had lot pains and embarrassment for been Hsv patient last two month i did Hsv research online and found website for natural treatment to get ride of my infection, and i went through the site and recommend me to Dr Ben I contacted Dr Ben through his website and been his patient after one month I got cured. I want everyone living with Hsv to get this treatment and got cured Dr Ben have the cure to every virus. his email;
I just tried this recipe in my kitchen. OMG thank you so so much for this wonderful idea! The only thing I think I will try next time is to add just a dash or so of salt to the mug before microwaving (although it already tastes great!). I think it will be fun to experiment with adding some different seasonings or herbs to the batter before baking it, too, just for variety.
Cheryl, We use beef gelatin in this recipe to act as a binder and add a bit more chewiness to help simulate regular bread. (If you’re interested, we talk more about using beef gelatin in keto baking in this post: https://theketoqueens.com/crispy-low-carb-indian-flatbread-recipe/.) We haven’t experimented with this recipe to omit the beef gelatin, but you might be able to get a similar result using a bit more psyllium husk powder, flaxseed meal, ground chia seeds, xanthan gum, or guar gum. If you decide to play around with the recipe, please let us know how it goes!
My Wife was diagnosed with ALS (Lou Gehrig’s Disease) when she was 72 years old 4 years ago. The Rilutek (riluzole) did very little to help her. The medical team did even less. Her decline was rapid and devastating. Her arms weakened first, then her hands and legs. Last year, a family friend told us about Organic Herbal clinic and their successful ALS TREATMENT, we visited their website www. organicherbalclinic. com and ordered their ALS Formula, i am happy to report the treatment effectively treated and reversed her Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), most of the symptoms stopped, she is able to walk and eat well, sleep well and exercise regularly., she is pretty active now and her attitude is extremely positive.
A friend who gave me your recipe said to drink a glass of water with it.How many slices of the amazing bread can one eat without the psyllium causing a problem for a normal person per day?The replies are so long,but from what I did read no one complained about any problems caused by eating the bread or having to drink something. So can I eat this bread like other breads without drinking something?
Target organ damage occurs through multiple mechanisms in metabolic syndrome. The individual diseases leading to metabolic syndrome produce adverse clinical consequences. For example, hypertension in metabolic syndrome causes left ventricular hypertrophy, progressive peripheral arterial disease, and renal dysfunction. [12] However, the cumulative risk for metabolic syndrome appears to cause microvascular dysfunction, which further amplifies insulin resistance and promotes hypertension. [13]

Overweight individuals with metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes are likely to see improvements in the clinical markers of disease risk with a well-formulated very-low-carbohydrate diet. Glucose control improves due to less glucose introduction and improved insulin sensitivity. In addition to reducing weight, especially truncal obesity and insulin resistance, low-carb diets also may help improve blood pressure, blood glucose regulation, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol levels. However, LDL cholesterol may increase on this diet.
What is the link between ketones and diabetes? Ketone is a chemical produced by the body when fats are broken down for energy. Ketone testing is important for people with diabetes, because high levels can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), when acid levels become too high in the blood and the person loses consciousness. Find out when and why to do ketone testing. Read now

Theresa, Thanks so much for your comment! We aren’t sure what you mean though; our recipe above calls for 2 cups (224g) of almond flour, which is the same measurement you mentioned from the brand you use (112g per 1 cup X 2 cups = 224g). It may be helpful to reach out to a particular almond flour manufacturer if you have a product-specific question. We hope this helps and happy keto baking!


You can find a mixed bag of studies in rodents; sometimes the ketogenic diet is amazing sometimes it’s terrible. The main reason why is because there are many kinds of ketogenic diets; what fats were used? how processed is the food and what was the method of processing? were these genetically manipulated mice or wild type? were they fed ad lib (to their hearts content), forced fed (hypercaloric) or had their calories restricted?
What causes high cholesterol? High cholesterol is a risk factor for heart attacks and coronary heart disease, because it builds up in the arteries, narrowing them. It does not usually have any symptoms, and many people do not know they have it. We look at healthy levels and ranges of cholesterol, at ways to prevent it, and medications to treat it. Read now

Type I diabetes is usually treated by insulin injections, that replace the body’s own insulin production. In Type I diabetics, lowering dietary carbohydrate consumption can reduce the need to inject insulin to lower blood sugar101. However, because they do not release any insulin Type I diabetics can be at risk of developing a complication called “Diabetic Ketoacidosis” (DKA). DKA occurs because, alongside its effects on glucose, insulin has other effects in the body. Insulin normally inhibits the release of fat (lipolysis) from adipose tissue. In Type I diabetics, the lack of insulin can lead to high levels of lypolysis, high levels of fatty acids in the blood, this then drives rapid and uncontrolled liver ketone production. The symptoms of DKA are weakness, confusion and deep gasping breathing. In order to avoid developing DKA while following a ketogenic diet, Type I diabetics should seek medical supervision and closely monitor their glucose and ketone levels if reducing their dietary carbohydrate intake. 


When the kidneys filter blood, metabolic substrates such as glucose and ketones are re-absorbed to prevent energy wastage. If blood levels of a metabolite exceed the capacity of the kidney to reabsorb them, then a ‘spillover’ effect occurs and the metabolite (i.e. glucose or ketones) appear in the urine. However, urine is not a very reliable measure. Firstly, whilst following a ketogenic diet, adaptation occurs over time that means more ketones are reabsorbed in comparison to the early phase of the diet9. Furthermore, at higher levels of ketones, the appearance in the urine does not correlate to levels in the blood10. Similarly, after consumption of exogenous ketones, urine ketone levels were not in proportion to the levels in the blood11 this may be because of the rapid onset of ketosis in comparison to when ketosis is achieved with fasting or diet. Therefore urine test strips are useful as a guide but have several disadvantages to their use to accurately quantify levels of ketosis. 

The low carbohydrate content of the ketogenic diet prevents blood sugar spikes and stabilizes insulin levels. Chronically high insulin levels and the disrupted incretin signaling (gut derived molecules) lead to insulin resistance over time (pre-diabetes). This means that our cells are not willing to take up vast amounts of glucose anymore and more and more insulin is needed for glucose uptake – a vicious cycle.

How does high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) feel? To maintain the right amount of blood sugar, the body needs insulin, a hormone that delivers this sugar to the cells. When insulin is lacking, blood sugar builds up. We describe symptoms of high blood sugar, including fatigue, weight loss, and frequent urination. Learn who is at risk and when to see a doctor here. Read now
Low blood sugars can be caused by not eating enough, or by trying to lower your sugar too quickly. A blood sugar under 60 is considered dangerous. It can lead to confusion or loss of consciousness, which can be deadly. It is important to have a snack with you at all times in case this happens to you. If it does happen, think about what you did or didn’t do that lead to the low number. If it happens often, start writing things down to help you track what the cause is so that you can avoid it.
To conclude, athletes may consider adopting a ketogenic diet in the hope of improving endurance, well being and body composition but unless the diet is well formulated they risk causing fatigue, under fuelling and ultimately compromising performance. There is currently insufficient scientific research to definitively support the use of ketogenic diet for athletes to improve performance, although beneficial effects on fat oxidation, body composition and well-being have been described. However, the anecdotal reports of success and the increasing number of pro and elite athletes claiming to be experimenting with the ketogenic diet is compelling. Furthermore, people who are training and competing at a sub elite level may have a greater net benefit from the effects of the diet on recovery, wellness and body composition that may outweigh the loss of top end power resulting from the diet. Finally, it is unknown if there would be a beneficial effect of following the ketogenic diet but adding in strategic carbohydrate refeeds around more intense training and competition periods. Given the popularity of the ketogenic diet, one hopes these questions will be addressed in the near future. 
The low carbohydrate content of the ketogenic diet prevents blood sugar spikes and stabilizes insulin levels. Chronically high insulin levels and the disrupted incretin signaling (gut derived molecules) lead to insulin resistance over time (pre-diabetes). This means that our cells are not willing to take up vast amounts of glucose anymore and more and more insulin is needed for glucose uptake – a vicious cycle.

In the previously described C. elegans experiments demonstrating mitohormesis, knockout of the NFE2L2 homologue SKN-1 attenuated the increases in antioxidant enzyme activity and lifespan [73], indicating that mitohormesis may, at least in part, be dependent on NFE2L2 signaling. Similarly, a ketogenic diet (Bio-Serv F3666) increased nuclear content of NFE2L2 and expression of its target NQO1 in the hippocampi of rats, all of which occurred after an initial increase in mtROS [96]. This increase in NFE2L2 content appears to have mediated the subsequent decrease in mtROS to a level below baseline [96], thereby further indicating a likely role of NFE2L2 in the induction of mitohormesis during a ketogenic diet.
If someone has already had a heart attack, their LDL ("bad") cholesterol should be reduced below 70mg/dl. A person who has diabetes has a heart attack risk equivalent to that of someone who has already one and so should be treated in the same way. If you have metabolic syndrome, a detailed discussion about lipid therapy is needed between you and your doctor, as each individual is unique.
I am so happy to share this testimony on how Dr balogun, was able to heal me from Herpes Disease, well i was detected positive on 21st September 2015, and ever since i have been looking for a way to treat and cure this disease from me, but always i try their was no solution,few weeks ago my aunt rosa introduce me to doctor balogun telling him all my problem he told me what we were to do, that he was going to send me a portion which i am going to take, and after seeing testimony of some people on how Dr balogun was able to cure people from Herpes disease, i also heard about it on media when a young lady also gave her testimony about this same Dr balogun, well left with no hope i message him and he sent me an herbal portion that i will be taken., he told me to go back to the hospital for check up and after i have done that i should come and tell him the good news result, at first when i saw the message i was so shock and still did not believed i will be cured, well friend to make my story short i am cured from herpes now after many time of sorrow, i am Negative, and my sickness are gone, i thank God for leading me to this man….you can email him on balogun.herbalsolutioncenter@gmail.com or you can also call him via +2349064881054 he can be of help to you on any problem like {1} HIV/AIDS {2CANCER {3}HERPES {4}DIABETES (5}HERPERTITIS B (6}HPV
290. Vega R. B., Huss J. M., Kelly D. P. The coactivator PGC-1 cooperates with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in transcriptional control of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation enzymes. Molecular and Cellular Biology. 2000;20(5):1868–1876. doi: 10.1128/mcb.20.5.1868-1876.2000. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
Natural herbs have cured so many illness that drugs and injection cant cure. I’ve seen the great importance of natural herbs and the wonderful work they have done in people’s lives. i read people’s testimonies online on how they were cured of herpes, HIV, diabetics etc by Dr. Obor herbal medicine, so i decided to contact the doctor because i know nature has the power to heal anything. I was diagnosed with HIV for the past 7 years but Dr. Obor cured me with his herbs and i referred my aunt and her husband to him immediately because they were both suffering from herpes but to God be the glory, they were cured too .I know is hard to believe but am a living testimony. There is no harm trying herbs. He is also a spell caster, he cast spell to restore broken marriages and he cast good luck spells to prosper and excel in life. Contact Dr. Obor on: hsvcuretemple@gmail.com
But that doesn't mean it could never, ever happen—in fact, it actually did happen to one women on a "no-carbohydrate" diet, according to a 2006 case report in the New England Journal of Medicine. According to the case report, the woman was on a strict low-carb regimen for four years (she ate fewer than 20 grams of carbs a day—20 grams per day is the minimum on the keto diet, but most people eat 50 grams per day), but her ketoacidosis cleared up after she was put on a diet with normal carbohydrate intake.
Bhasin et al, as part of the Framingham Heart Study, found that sex hormone-binding globulin is independently associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome, whereas testosterone is not. Age, body mass index (BMI), and insulin sensitivity independently affect sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone levels. [48] More recent studies have raised the possibility of an association between testosterone deficiency and metabolic syndrome. [49]
Hey there… I’m new to keto, so I’m hoping my questions don’t come across as really stupid. Your bread looks great, and if I can get bread again, then that’s simply awesome. The pictures remind me of banana bread. Is there a way of adding this flavor without going insanely overboard on the carbs? And without that artificial banana taste? Also, would this recipe work as muffins? Thanks, Kelly

Keto is not hard to follow at all. See, this is why I took my diet and nutrition into my own hands. I have PCOS and the ketogenic diet has worked wonders for me. I’m finally pregnant at the age of 32 and after 11 years of marriage because the ketogenic diet made me lose over 100 lbs and brought my insulin resistance under control. I feel better than I’ve ever felt. Sometimes doctors don’t seem to know as much as they should, or as much as they assume they do, and that’s pretty disturbing. Just like they’re still using the old school and very inaccurate BMI charts that are just pure bs. I’ll just take care of myself outside of certain situations involving illness or injury. I’m doing great on my own.


Hi Maria- I am a 3 year cancer survivor. I had been following basically a paleo diet, but often fell off the wagon where sugar was concerned. In the last year I was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis and chrohn’s disease. My naturopath recommended I follow the keto-adaptive diet. I was very excited to make your amazing bread, but I wonder if the psyllium powder would be bad for my intestinal issues? Hope not!
Urine test for diabetes: What you need to know Urine tests for diabetes check for protein, ketones, and glucose. They are frequently used for diagnosing and monitoring diabetes, and to assess people who are experiencing symptoms, such as fatigue or nausea. Depending on the results, recommendations may be given about medication or lifestyle changes that could help. Read now
The coordinated effects of AMPK, SIRT1, and SIRT3 are primarily mediated through PGC-1α, which is activated through phosphorylation by AMPK [242, 265] and deacetylation by SIRT1 [77, 242, 266–269]. SIRT3 also increases PGC-1α activity [270], possibly through cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) [271, 272], but the exact mechanism has not been elucidated. In addition to phosphorylating PGC-1α, activated AMPK also increases PGC-1α expression [260, 273–276]. Activation of β2-adrenergic receptors [277–280] and the adiponectin AdipoR1 receptor [281] also increase PGC-1α expression, independently of AMPK activation [278, 281]. PGC-1α activity is increased by oxidative stress [76, 77, 282–284], possibly through activation of AMPK [259, 260] or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) [283, 284], or inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β, which inhibits PGC-1α through phosphorylation [77, 283]. In contrast, insulin decreases PGC-1α activity through phosphorylation by PKB [285]. Once activated, PGC-1α interacts with the PPAR family of nuclear receptors [286] and the FOXO family of transcription factors [287] to influence expression of a variety of bioenergetic and antioxidant proteins. PGC-1α most notably increases transcription of proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration [76, 242, 265, 267, 269, 274, 279, 282, 285, 288–293] but also increases transcription of antioxidant proteins including SOD1 [76], SOD2 [76, 282, 289, 292–294], catalase [282], GPx [76, 294], thioredoxins [282, 283, 292], TRXR [282, 292], Prx3 [282, 292], and Prx5 [282, 292], as well as the mitochondrial uncoupling proteins UCP2 [76, 265, 282, 288, 294], UCP3 [76, 265, 294], and ANT [76, 295].

Finally, an important consideration is the effect of the ketogenic diet on blood lipids. This is because the levels of various lipids in the blood have been shown to predict the likelihood of cardiovascular disease. Lipids and cholesterol are carried through the blood in biochemical assemblies called ‘lipoproteins,’ because they do not dissolve in water. There are two broad classes of lipoproteins in the blood: high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL). HDL is thought of as more ‘healthy’ (H = ‘Healthy’) because it responsible for moving cholesterol and lipids from the peripheral tissues into the liver for metabolism. LDL is demonised as bad cholesterol (L = ‘Lethal’), levels are elevated after a fatty meal and elevated LDL is associated with cholesterol build up in the arteries. 
Because it lacks carbohydrates, a ketogenic diet is rich in proteins and fats. It typically includes plenty of meats, eggs, processed meats, sausages, cheeses, fish, nuts, butter, oils, seeds, and fibrous vegetables. Because it is so restrictive, it is really hard to follow over the long run. Carbohydrates normally account for at least 50% of the typical American diet. One of the main criticisms of this diet is that many people tend to eat too much protein and poor-quality fats from processed foods, with very few fruits and vegetables. Patients with kidney disease need to be cautious because this diet could worsen their condition. Additionally, some patients may feel a little tired in the beginning, while some may have bad breath, nausea, vomiting, constipation, and sleep problems.
Concussion (a mild form of TBI), is defined as a short term impairment of brain function caused by impact. Symptoms include dizziness, confusion and headache. When the brain suffers a concussive impact this triggers an acute cascade of cellular events that can eventually cause chronic problems. Firstly, immediately after impact there are changes to the concentrations of ions and neurotransmitters in and outside of the neurones. For example, the cells release potassium and glutamate (excitatory neurotransmitter); this can cause neuronal damage instantly64. The disruption to the equilibrium of substances within the brain must be corrected, which requires the action of the ATP dependant ion pumps in the cell membranes. In order to produce enough ATP the brain has a transient period of high glucose metabolism (within 30 minutes of impact), which is followed by a period of glucose metabolic depression that can last anywhere from 5 days to several months, depending on severity65. In this time the brain is starved of energy when it is unable to metabolise glucose, which can cause long term damage. Severe or repeated impacts can lead to development of conditions such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). 

342. Virbasius J. V., Scarpulla R. C. Activation of the human mitochondrial transcription factor A gene by nuclear respiratory factors: a potential regulatory link between nuclear and mitochondrial gene expression in organelle biogenesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 1994;91(4):1309–1313. doi: 10.1073/pnas.91.4.1309. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
Brandi, Oh no, I’m sorry to hear about such a severe allergy! We carefully tested and re-tested this recipe and this is the best version we came up with. In order to come up with a recipe that doesn’t use coconut flour, we’d have to play around with not only alternative flours, but also adjust the amount of liquid (because coconut flour absorbs more liquid than most other flours), and additionally, potentially alter the bake temperature and bake time as well. I have a recipe for Paleo Sandwich Bread on my other blog that doesn’t use coconut flour that you might be interested in: https://www.anediblemosaic.com/best-paleo-sandwich-bread/. I hope this is helpful!
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