In addition to BHB inducing upregulation of antioxidant defense, ketones have direct antioxidant capacity. BHB scavenges •OH, as does ACA, although to a lesser extent . The applicability of this antioxidant capacity has been investigated in vitro and in vivo in the context of hypoglycemia. In cultured hippocampal neurons, treatment with BHB or ACA decreased ROS during hypoglycemia induced through inhibition of glycolysis, and in hypoglycemic rats, infusion of BHB decreased hippocampal lipid peroxidation .
Beginning the ketogenic diet is different than making most other dietary changes, including many popular low-carb diets, because it involves actually changing your metabolism is pretty significant ways. Most people find that if they ease into the diet, giving themselves about 3–4 weeks to adjust, they experience fewer negative symptoms associated with the early stages.
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Mitochondrial uncoupling is primarily facilitated by uncoupling proteins (UCPs) and adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) [124, 128, 129]. Although UCP1 is primarily expressed in brown adipose, UCP2 is expressed across a wide variety of tissues, and expression of UCP3 appears to be limited to skeletal muscle and the heart . Knockout of UCP2  or UCP3 [94, 132] increases mtROS production, and both proteins are inactivated through glutathionylation by GSH , further establishing their involvement in antioxidant defense. UCP2 and UCP3 may also be activated by products of lipid peroxidation induced by mtROS . However, the potential for UCP2 and UCP3 to reduce mtROS through uncoupling is not fully agreed upon;  UCPs may alternatively protect against oxidative damage merely by exporting lipid hydroperoxides . Furthermore, UCP3 is less abundant in type I and type IIa muscle fibers , which are more oxidative, and its expression and content are further decreased by endurance exercise training [135, 136], suggesting that UCP3 may not be a primary defense against mtROS.
Rick, Yes, I would try baking it longer if it’s coming out gummy. If it’s starting to brown too much outside, but the inside doesn’t seem to be fully cooked, you could cover it with foil to prevent over-browning. Another trick I sometimes use is to leave the bread in the oven to cool once it’s done baking (sometimes covering the loaf with foil to prevent over-browning). I hope these tips help!
I made your bread yesterday. You are right–it IS the best tasting keto bread yet! And I’ve made dozens of recipes through the years! I enlarged it–made a recipe and a half, and used a 9×5 glass pan. I confess, I did make a mess of it at one point. I used carton egg whites, and they didn’t do as well as fresh egg whites do. I ended up with a lot of foam on top and liquid on the bottom. I tried adding the dough to it, but had trouble smoothing out the many lumps. Soooo, I used my hand mixer to mix the whole mess. I put it in the pan and decided to just throw it out, thinking it could never turn into a good loaf of bread. But I went ahead and put it in the oven, and it turned out great! The rise was higher than any other almond flour bread I’ve ever made. So it’s obviously a very “forgivable” recipe. Many thanks!!
Well, everyone, I am sensitive to psyllium so I experimented and it kind of worked! I made a half recipe using chia seed I ground in my Vitamix into 5 buns. They didn’t really rise but the flavor was quite good. Might add garlic and onion powder next time. I was able to slice the skinny bun and have a burger on it. Yum! Hadn’t had a burger on a bun for ages! Worth a try! I did weigh everything and was very precise so inaccurate quantities would not be an issue. Maria, any ideas on how to make this mixture rise some? I’m sure I’m not the only one with psyllium issues. Can’t have flax much either and I think if I have the chia too often that will give me tummy trouble also. One more question Maria. Is there a reason for no salt in the egg white protein bread? I don’t really like the flavor or texture but thought salt and seasonings would help. Thank you, Maria! You have made my meals so much more enjoyable! So grateful!
The situation for Type II diabetics is different because some insulin production remains and some cells of the body can still respond to insulin. It is worth noting that insulin sensitivity can be different between the different tissues of the body such as liver, adipose tissue and muscle. A small amount of insulin release can help to prevent development of DKA unless the body is totally insulin resistant. Insulin resistance is a term used to indicate that for a given amount of insulin, the cells of the body are less responsive and take up less glucose. This means that blood glucose levels remain higher for longer when insulin resistant Type II diabetics eat a carbohydrate rich meal. Over time, the pancreas secretes more insulin to compensate for reduced insulin sensitivity, which can damage the insulin producing (beta) cells. Furthermore, having high blood glucose can lead to a number of side effects:
Hi Maria, glad you like the bread! Good question about the olive oil – on the one hand using the same amount as butter would mean you stick with the same wet/dry ratio, on the other had olive oil doesn’t firm up at room temperature, but butter and coconut oil do. Therefore, I’d try using a bit less olive oil than butter, maybe 40g instead of 60g. You could also get hold of refined coconut oil, which does not have the coconut taste, for example this one.
I made two portions in flat soups bowls. Added a hard boiled egg & grilled onions from the pork rendering and sage dressing spices. It was awesome. The only thing I could have done to make it better would have been a quarter cup or less of water in the skillet for the flavor and poured it on top of the dressing. Don’t be afraid to experiment with this awesome bread recipe.
A ketogenic diet could be an interesting alternative to treat certain conditions, and may accelerate weight loss. But it is hard to follow and it can be heavy on red meat and other fatty, processed, and salty foods that are notoriously unhealthy. We also do not know much about its long-term effects, probably because it’s so hard to stick with that people can’t eat this way for a long time. It is also important to remember that “yo-yo diets” that lead to rapid weight loss fluctuation are associated with increased mortality. Instead of engaging in the next popular diet that would last only a few weeks to months (for most people that includes a ketogenic diet), try to embrace change that is sustainable over the long term. A balanced, unprocessed diet, rich in very colorful fruits and vegetables, lean meats, fish, whole grains, nuts, seeds, olive oil, and lots of water seems to have the best evidence for a long, healthier, vibrant life.
Maria I have ALL your books, except your 30 day cleanse, and I have attempted the 7 day weight loss and healing plan, and dairy free I might add, but was so hungry and dizzy on it! My husband pointed out the the “lunch” area, item, says Side. Well I’ve read it 3 times – the front of the book and such, it doesn’t say add food to the “SIDE”…it says use this plan. Also you maybe have said elsewhere, but the math is wrong on the second page for total calories….lastly the intermittent fasting – I thought I read previously in the Metabolism book that you shouldn’t fast more than 3 days at a time, but this book doesn’t mention that. Have you updated your thoughts?
The keto diet revolves around eating foods that are high in natural fats, consuming only moderate protein and severely restricting the number of carbs eaten each day. Even if you don’t have much weight to lose, entering into a state of ketosis can be helpful for other reasons — such as for improved energy levels, mental capabilities and mood stabilization.
Unfortunately I did not care for this recipe. I’ve been cooking snow I was 8yrs old and cook everything from scratch but I always make a recipe and follow it to a T the first time..based on that..this was like eating scrambled eggs..the taste was very very eggy! Texture was like scrambled eggs too on the inside.. Also very very salty!! I’m wondering if taking out the yolk and eliminating half the salt could make this better. I’m bummed because I really wanted to like it.
I made this yesterday and had 3 pieces. Had another 2 for breakfast today and after a few minutes I started feeling nauseated. The nausea got worse and worse, and I ended up projectile vomiting in the bathroom. I looked it up and it’s a symptom of psyllium husk overdose. I read that the max dosage per day is around 2tsp. I had around 10 times the daily dosage in my breakfast alone… I love all of Maria’s recipes but this is just a warning to watch out with the husk powder in this recipe! I did not grind mine to decrease the density of it. I am semi comatose in bed now while my husband takes care of our kids. 😁😁😁
It just needed a bit more structure, so for trial number three I split the difference, using half coconut flour and half almond flour. There’s a reason they say the third time’s a charm. This was the perfect blend. The bread was moist but firm enough to hold its shape, and it didn’t taste like coconut. After that, I began experimenting: hazelnut flour worked great, and cheese and scallions added great flavor.
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Usually, there are no immediate physical symptoms. Medical problems associated with the metabolic syndrome develop over time. If you are unsure if you have metabolic syndrome, see your healthcare provider. He or she will be able to make the diagnosis by obtaining the necessary tests, including blood pressure, lipid profile (triglycerides and HDL), and blood glucose.
The advice above is therefore not only illogical, but also works poorly. It completely lacks scientific support according to a Swedish expert investigation. On the contrary, in recent years similar carbohydrate-rich dietary advice has been shown to increase the risk of getting diabetes and appears to potentially worsen blood sugar levels long-term in people who already have type 2 diabetes. The advice does not improve their health in other important ways either.
A good low carb breakfast can set the tone for the rest of the day, so we make sure it’s delicious and satisfying! Whether it’s a quick Bulletproof coffee to get your day started or a full blown bacon, egg and cheese, pancake Sunday breakfast, everybody loves the first meal of the day. Our full collection of keto breakfast recipes should inspire you to mix breakfast up a bit and try to include new things in your morning routine.
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Thanks for replying. I guess I’ll just try it on both convection and regular and see which works out best! 🙂 I had made the sub roll in a regular oven with good results yet it didn’t turn out as well when baked on convection. That’s why I was wondering about the temperature and whether that was the culprit. Guess there’s only one way to find out. This experimenting can get expensive!
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Finally, choose a healthy fat to include with your breakfast. These choices might include coconut oil, avocado oil, grass-fed butter, ghee, or bacon fat. You will probably be cooking your protein source and vegetable in your chosen fat source, but you might also use it in a sauce. When adding flavor to any recipe (not just breakfast recipes) the sauce can make or break the dish. Here are a few sauces you might choose to include:
Test ketones in the late morning or afternoon. Blood and urine ketones are usually lowest right after waking up. Try testing later on, preferably a few hours after eating. Even if you’re only in ketosis for a portion of the day, you’re still getting some benefits, as discussed in this talk by Dr. Steve Phinney: Achieving and maintaining nutritional ketosis.
If you’re just starting the keto diet, breakfast might seem like the most challenging meal of the day. Lunches and dinners can easily be made keto by preparing recipes you already enjoy. Meals like salads, steak, salmon, and stuffed peppers are inherently low carb. But what about your favorite breakfast foods? Waffles, oatmeal, and pancakes are all off-limits.
Although convincing, the bulk of evidence in relation to the inhibitory effects of ketosis on appetite is still anecdotal. Preliminary scientific reports seem to support this phenomenon, and the evidence shows that KD is more effective, at least in the short/medium-term, on fat loss (Paoli, 2014). It was demonstrated that diet-induced weight loss leads to changes in energy expenditure and in appetite-regulating hormones that facilitate weight regain and the return to initial energy homeostasis (Sumithran et al., 2011). This response to alteration of energy balance nullifies the success of many dietary approaches. It is well-known that the long-term success of a nutritional approach is defined by the amount of weight regain and is the main problem regarding the so-called weight cycling or “yo-yo” effect (Jeffery, 1996). A recent study by our group has demonstrated that a brief ketogenic period, if followed by a longer period of correct Mediterranean diet could avoid this yo-yo effect (Paoli et al., 2013). During the ketogenic period subjects reported less hunger, confirming previous studies (Nickols-Richardson et al., 2005; Johnston et al., 2006; Johnstone et al., 2008) on hunger-suppression effect of ketogenic diet. Despite these clinical findings, the mechanisms of action of ketosis on appetite reduction are still not completely understood. Clinical results are suggestive of both direct and indirect (via modifications of hunger-related hormones concentration) actions of KBs on appetite (Sumithran et al., 2013).
Another mechanism that could be involved in food-regulation during KD is the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate regulation. Wu et al. demonstrated that GABAergic signaling from the NPY/AgRP neurons to the parabrachial nucleus (located in the dorsolateral part of the pons) is involved in many regulatory sensory stimuli including taste and gastric distension, regulate feeding behavior. GABA signaling seems to prevent animals from anorexia when AgRP neurons were destroyed (Wu et al., 2009). These findings are yet another contradictory aspect of KDs and food behavior; ketosis should increase the availability of glutamate (via diminution of transamination of glutamate to aspartate) and therefore increase GABA and glutamine levels; moreover, in ketosis, the brain imports a huge amount of acetate and converts it through glia into glutamine (an important precursor of GABA) (Yudkoff et al., 2008). The result of these mechanisms, together with the increased mitochondrial metabolism and flux through the TCA cycle, is an increased synthesis of glutamine and a “buffering” of glutamate. These results are not consistent with the well-documented anorexigenic effect of KDs, and therefore the GABA hypothesis cannot be taken into account despite the mild euphoria often reported during a KD that is probably due to the action of BHB (Brown, 2007) and can help to reduce appetite.
Brittany, Thank you so much for leaving a comment! Without being there in the kitchen with you, it’s difficult to say what the issue was; however, I can definitely help you troubleshoot…did you cook it for the full amount of time the recipe calls for, and did you cover the top with foil for the last 15 minutes? If so, there might be an issue with your oven’s calibration (you can get an inexpensive oven thermometer to check this). Another tip is to let your eggs come to room temperature first. Another factor is the altitude at which you’re baking; if you’re at high altitude, you might need to slightly adjust the oven temperature and bake time. The other thing to remember is that there will usually be a little bit of fall to most keto breads (in fact, every keto bread we’ve ever made) because keto flours lack gluten and are naturally quite dense; however, you can see in the photos, we still got a good rise on this loaf. I hope these tips help!