Ketolysis is the process of breaking down ketones to ultimately provide energy through the Krebs Cycle and mitochondrial oxidative (using oxygen) phosphorylation. Ketone bodies are broken down in the mitochondria of virtually all tissues in the body. The liver is a notable exception, being unable to utilise ketones as a fuel because liver cells lack acetyl-CoA thiolase, a key enzyme in the ketone oxidative pathway. BHB enters the mitochondria of the cell through a monocarboxylate transporter, undergoes conversion to acetoacetate by BHB dehydrogenase and then addition of a CoA group from succinyl-CoA by 3-oxo-acid transferase. The resulting acetoacetyl-CoA acts a substrate for the formation of two molecules of acetyl-CoA in a reaction catalysed by acetyl-CoA thiolase. Acetyl-CoA is then available to condense with oxaloacetate and enter the Krebs cycle.

The metabolic syndrome can be induced by overfeeding with sugar or fructose, particularly concomitantly with high-fat diet.[36] The resulting oversupply of omega-6 fatty acids, particularly arachidonic acid (AA), is an important factor in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome.[medical citation needed] Arachidonic acid (with its precursor – linoleic acid) serve as a substrate to the production of inflammatory mediators known as eicosanoids, whereas the arachidonic acid-containing compound diacylglycerol (DAG) is a precursor to the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) while fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) mediates the metabolism of anandamide into arachidonic acid.[37][35] Anandamide can also be produced from N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine via several pathways.[35] Anandamide and 2-AG can also be hydrolized into arachidonic acid, potentially leading to increased eicosanoid synthesis.[35]
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Also that’s absolutely wrong information about microwaves. Breast milk is not microwaved because of the uneven heating which can cause ‘hot spots’ which will lead to your baby’s mouth being burned. It does nothing to the nutrition of the milk itself or the proteins. There is a lot of fear mongering about microwaves and most people don’t understand the basic principle of how it works. It’s like people who blindly say there are ‘chemicals’ in food not realizing that everything is a chemical compound, even drinking water. So don’t worry 🙂
Recently, many of my patients have been asking about a ketogenic diet. Is a ketogenic diet safe? Would you recommend it? Despite the recent hype, a ketogenic diet is not something new. In medicine, we have been using it for almost 100 years to treat drug-resistant epilepsy, especially in children. In the 1970s, Dr. Atkins popularized his very-low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss that began with a very strict two-week ketogenic phase. Over the years, other fad diets incorporated a similar approach for weight loss.
4. Tapia P. C. Sublethal mitochondrial stress with an attendant stoichiometric augmentation of reactive oxygen species may precipitate many of the beneficial alterations in cellular physiology produced by caloric restriction, intermittent fasting, exercise and dietary phytonutrients: “Mitohormesis” for health and vitality. Medical Hypotheses. 2006;66(4):832–843. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2005.09.009. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
^ Lawrie 2014, pp. 92-. "A much delayed onset of rigor mortis has been observed in the muscle of the whale (Marsh, 1952b). The ATP level and the pH may remain at their high in vivo values for as much as 24h at 37ºC. No adequate explanation of this phenomenon has yet been given; but the low basal metabolic rate of whale muscle (Benedict, 1958), in combination with the high content of oxymyoglobin in vivo (cf 4.3.1), may permit aerobic metabolism to continue slowly for some time after the death of the animal, whereby ATP levels can be maintained sufficiently to delay the union of actin and myosin in rigor mortis."
Well, everyone, I am sensitive to psyllium so I experimented and it kind of worked! I made a half recipe using chia seed I ground in my Vitamix into 5 buns. They didn’t really rise but the flavor was quite good. Might add garlic and onion powder next time. I was able to slice the skinny bun and have a burger on it. Yum! Hadn’t had a burger on a bun for ages! Worth a try! I did weigh everything and was very precise so inaccurate quantities would not be an issue. Maria, any ideas on how to make this mixture rise some? I’m sure I’m not the only one with psyllium issues. Can’t have flax much either and I think if I have the chia too often that will give me tummy trouble also. One more question Maria. Is there a reason for no salt in the egg white protein bread? I don’t really like the flavor or texture but thought salt and seasonings would help. Thank you, Maria! You have made my meals so much more enjoyable! So grateful!

I just made this today. If I lived in London and could hug you, I would! You have NO idea how many recipes I’ve tried for almond flour bread and they never come out right or taste very good. This recipe is amazing! Since I can’t use psyllium due to an allergy to it, I used ground flax seed meal instead. OMG, this bread is delicious! I used the small loaf pan like you did and it came out perfect. It rose above the pan and is a perfect loaf. I let it completely cool, cut it with a bread knife and it did NOT fall apart, something so many of these type of breads do. AND it does NOT taste eggy which has been another problem I’ve dealt with. The loaf is so pretty! I can’t wait to experiment with different spices or herbs in this bread. Another plus for me is that since the slices are smaller than regular bread, it helps with calorie control when putting things on it for a sandwich. I have a strong wheat intolerance and don’t do well with grains in general so I’m always looking for alternative recipes. Thank you from the bottom of my heart. You just made my day!!!!


Yes you can lose fat on a low carb because it’s just another low calorie diet. How do I know this? I’ve done low carb, (Atkins, etc) high carb, (Slimming Word) moderate carb etc and log my food and was shocked each time to see they were all low calorie. After the initial week or so the rate of fat loss is same as any other diet. It’s calories in calories out. Simple. It’s what some call indirect deficit diet placing silly restriction, rules can eat must eat etc. and of course you lose weight but nothing to do with low carb. It works because it’s a low calorie diet.
Similarly, several studies have demonstrated that up to half or more of patients undergoing PD have metabolic syndrome, and at least one study has demonstrated a significant increase in the prevalence with initiation of PD therapy. The only study that made a head-to-head comparison concluded that metabolic syndrome was significantly more prevalent in patients undergoing PD compared with in-center HD. These observations have raised concerns that PD therapy itself may contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome. However, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients undergoing in-center HD in the only study with head-to-head comparison was substantially lower than in other studies. Moreover, there are two challenges with the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in patients undergoing PD. First, the intraperitoneal instillation of dialysate with PD results in an increase in waist circumference, an important component for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Second, there is continuous systemic absorption of glucose from intraperitoneal dialysate, and hence, patients undergoing PD are never in a postabsorptive state. This results in overestimation of fasting glucose and lipid parameters. Finally, the results from studies examining the association of metabolic syndrome with cardiovascular events or all-cause mortality have been inconsistent. This is not surprising because the individual components of metabolic syndrome themselves do not portend a higher risk for death or cardiovascular events in patients with ESRD, including among those undergoing PD.
In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the function of the brain is compromised by the buildup of debris (plaques and tangles) inside the neurons. This mainly occurs in the areas of the brain associated with memory, intelligence, judgement, behaviour and language and impairs the ability to complete normal day to day tasks and to interact socially. Whilst the symptoms of AD usually only begin to appear with age, evidence suggests that damage to the brain begins to accumulate years earlier. This includes the buildup of plaques and tangles and a decreased ability to metabolise glucose (brain insulin insensitivity)50. If an individual has Type 2 Diabetes (systemic insulin insensitivity), the risk of AD is tenfold higher51.

The FOXO family of transcription factors is highly conserved and promotes longevity and resistance to cellular stress. Although there are a variety of FOXO isoforms with varying tissue distribution [318–320], FOXO3a has been the most thoroughly studied in relation to energy sensing, mitochondrial function, and antioxidant defense. Similar to PGC-1α, FOXO3a is activated through phosphorylation by AMPK [321–323] and deacetylation by SIRT1 [324, 325] and SIRT3 [326–329], and its transcriptional activity is at least partly dependent on AMPK [322] and SIRT1 [325]. In a variety of organisms, tissues, and cell types, FOXO3a increases mitochondrial biogenesis and expression of TFAM [329], but is more known for increasing expression of antioxidant and repair proteins, including SOD2 [287, 330, 331], catalase [287, 330, 332, 333], glutathione S-transferase (GST) [322], thioredoxins [287, 323], Prx3 [287, 334], Prx5 [287], and metallothioneins I and II [322], as well as UCP2 [287, 322] and the DNA repair enzyme growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 45 (GADD45) [322, 324, 335, 336]. FOXO3a is also activated by oxidative stress [324, 331, 333], possibly in a SIRT1-dependent manner [324], and likely mediated through c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK), which allows FOXOs to translocate to the nucleus by promoting dissociation of 14-3-3 [337, 338]. Furthermore, FOXO3a and SIRT3 interact in mitochondria to induce mitochondrial gene expression in an AMPK-dependent manner [339]. FOXO3a also induces expression of LKB1 [340] and NAMPT [341], indicating a feed-forward cycle of activation with AMPK and sirtuins. Like PGC-1α, FOXO3a transcriptional activity is inhibited by insulin through PKB [331].
Thank to Dr MAGGI i will forever continuously testify Dr.MAGGI for changing my life with your herbs Remedy, i have be Suffering from HEPATITIS B over Three years ago i have battled with this virus and was about to ruin my entire body,I have been living with this virus and it has been giving me challenges,one morning i was browsing through the internet then i saw several testimonies about Dr.MAGGI curing people from HEPATITIS B and immediately i contacted Dr.MAGGI on his email and he assure me that will prepared herbal medicine and when after drinking for 2 weeks i went back to my doctor and my result came out HEPATITIS B negative.Viewers i am so glad, email Dr.MAGGI and get your cure. Email: Maggiherbalcenter@gmail.com or you can also whatsapp him on this number +1[312]767-3460

People suffering from diabetes and taking insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents suffer severe hypoglycemia if the medications are not appropriately adjusted before initiating this diet. The ketogenic diet is contraindicated in patients with pancreatitis, liver failure, disorders of fat metabolism, primary carnitine deficiency, carnitine palmitoyltransferase deficiency, carnitine translocase deficiency, porphyrias, or pyruvate kinase deficiency. People on a ketogenic diet rarely can have a false positive breath alcohol test. Due to ketonemia, acetone in the body can sometimes be reduced to isopropanol by hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase which can give a false positive alcohol breath test result. 

For the eggs, beat the 4 eggs in a medium sized bowl until whites and yolks are combined.  Heat a medium skillet (I used the same skillet as the pancakes) over medium-low heat.  Add the butter and then the beaten eggs. Let the eggs cook until the edges begin to set.  push the eggs with a rubber spatula scraping the bottom of the pan.  scrape occasionally to get large folds of soft scrambled eggs.  When the eggs are just set and still a little runny, remove from the heat.  
Low blood sugars can be caused by not eating enough, or by trying to lower your sugar too quickly. A blood sugar under 60 is considered dangerous. It can lead to confusion or loss of consciousness, which can be deadly. It is important to have a snack with you at all times in case this happens to you. If it does happen, think about what you did or didn’t do that lead to the low number. If it happens often, start writing things down to help you track what the cause is so that you can avoid it.
Although metabolic syndrome is a serious condition, you can reduce your risks significantly by reducing your weight; increasing your physical activity; eating a heart-healthy diet that's rich in whole grains, fruits, vegetables and fish; and working with your healthcare provider to monitor and manage blood glucose, blood cholesterol, and blood pressure.

Yes you can lose fat on a low carb because it’s just another low calorie diet. How do I know this? I’ve done low carb, (Atkins, etc) high carb, (Slimming Word) moderate carb etc and log my food and was shocked each time to see they were all low calorie. After the initial week or so the rate of fat loss is same as any other diet. It’s calories in calories out. Simple. It’s what some call indirect deficit diet placing silly restriction, rules can eat must eat etc. and of course you lose weight but nothing to do with low carb. It works because it’s a low calorie diet.
Hello viewers all over the globe am very happy today to share my testimony on how i was cure from HERPES disease, i have been suffering from herpes for the pass 2 years which makes me had constant pain all over my body, i have went to several hospitals taking treatment from doctors, but still know improvement till i meet a old friend of mine who direct me to a great traditional herbalist called Dr Maggi which i contacted by email so luckily he reply back i explain my problem to him and he told me not to worry that his going to prepare the herbal medicine and send to me which will cure me forever, i believed in him, after all the procedures given to me by Dr Maggi few weeks later i went to see my doctor to confirm if i was finally cure, the result was positive am totally cured by this great herbalist called Dr Maggi, my life is more important now am free and happy if you have such sickness or any kind of disease contact Dr Maggi via email ; Maggiherbalcenter@gmail.com or whatapp/call +1[306]993-9253 , i will forever be grateful doctor.
This was a great read. I aim to restrict carbs always because I believe most are why the American population is obese. I would very much like to hear more about carb restriction excluding the discussion on processed meats and processed high salt content foods because I consume neither. I also don’t consume dairy or eggs. So can you provide some substance.
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Additional research has raised the possibility that metabolic syndrome adversely affects neurocognitive performance. [70] In particular, metabolic syndrome has been blamed for accelerated cognitive aging. [71] Patients with mental illnesses also face increased cardiometabolic risk due at least in part to socioeconomic factors such as greater poverty and poorer access to medical care. [72, 73]
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^ Klein MS, Buttchereit N, Miemczyk SP, Immervoll AK, Louis C, Wiedemann S, Junge W, Thaller G, Oefner PJ, Gronwald W (February 2012). "NMR metabolomic analysis of dairy cows reveals milk glycerophosphocholine to phosphocholine ratio as prognostic biomarker for risk of ketosis". Journal of Proteome Research. 11 (2): 1373–81. doi:10.1021/pr201017n. PMID 22098372.
I was recently diagnosed with diabetes which I had had uncontrolled for an estimated seven years. I have done a lot of research and while there is a lot of diabetes information available, little was helpful for whatever reasons – too simplistic in nature, didn’t answer hard hitting questions, or didn’t apply forward thinking scenarios. This article is one of the best I have read because it is both clear and concise and givens you all of your essential important information in a single place – something everyone needs. Even after all of my research, I still learned a couple new things reading this article. Excellent reference.
As previously discussed, RET is a prominent source of mtROS and is dependent on a high Δp across the inner mitochondrial membrane. During ATP production, Δp is dissipated as H+ enters the mitochondrial matrix through ATP synthase. Mitochondrial uncoupling also dissipates Δp, but by allowing translocation of H+ into the matrix independent of ATP synthase. Uncoupling is therefore regarded as an antioxidant defense in that it can mitigate mtROS production [122–126]. In fact, only a small dissipation of ΔΨ or ΔpH (components of Δp) is needed for a large decrease in mtROS production [57–60, 127].
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Hello Maria, firstborn thank you so much for this recipe. Last time I mande it was really good, I was so happy to eat bread again! But, I felt that the bread was a little on the goomy side, I’m not sure if this is the way it is suppose to be. Is there anything I can do about it? Don’t get me wrong, it did taste good, but as I was reading through the coments it seemed like it was not supposed to be goomy. I live in China and it’s really hard to find Psyllium husk here, so I don’t have many brand options.

The sirtuin isoforms SIRT1 [232, 233] and SIRT3 [234–236] are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide- (NAD+) dependent deacetylases associated with longevity. Many reactions are regulated by the redox state of NAD+ and its phosphorylated form, NADP+. Among these reactions, a prominent role of reduced NADP+ (i.e., NADPH) is to support reductive biosynthesis and antioxidant defense, requiring the NADP+/NADPH ratio to be kept low [237]. In contrast, the NAD+/NADH ratio is kept high to support energy metabolism [237], thereby linking sirtuin function to bioenergetic status [238]. Although sirtuins are inhibited by high concentrations of NADH, their activity is influenced more by absolute NAD+ concentration than the NAD+/NADH ratio [238].


I had the same effect but I used the same pan. The issue I had was the egg whites. I beat them with a mixer for 2 minutes with the cream of tartar and still couldn’t get them whipped. I’d say they were half whipped. I gave up and put them in the loan pan anyway. The bread looked the same and tasted great but it was somewhat spongy. I’m wondering if the egg whites really wouldn’t whip because I didn’t realize they had to be room temp. The bread is great but it won’t hold up for sandwiches. Any tips on egg whipping? I felt egg defeated today!
There is nothing inherently difficult about following a ketogenic diet. We have many patients who do this very easily over many years. The metabolic benefits significantly outway any perceived challenges from limiting particular food types. Uptake would be far more widespread if nutrition professionals left their predujical opinions of SFA’s behind. Finally, given the expertise in Ketogenic Diets at Harvard, Dr David Ludwig, for one springs to mind, I am surprised the author did not avail themselves of the local expertise.
Divya, I’m happy to hear the flavor was great, but sorry to hear the bread was flat! I’ll try to help you troubleshoot…first I would check to make sure that your baking powder is fresh. Also, did you use the full cup of egg whites? Did you use a 9 by 5-inch loaf pan? Did you cook it at 350F and is your oven properly calibrated? Did you bake it for the amount of time the recipe calls for?
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