I Never believed i was ever going to be HIV Negative again, Dr MAGGI has given me reasons to be happy, i was HIV positive for 3years and all the means i tried for treatment was not helpful to me, but when i came on the Internet i saw great testimony about Dr MAGGI on how he was able to cure someone from HIV, this person said great things about this man, and advice we contact him for any Disease problem that Dr MAGGI . can be of help, well i decided to give him a try, he requested for my information which i sent to him, and he told me he was going to prepare for me a healing portion, which he wanted me to take for days,and after which i should go back to the hospital for check up, well after taking all the treatment sent to me by Dr MAGGI i went back to the Hospital for check up, and now i have been confirmed HIV Negative, friends you can reach Dr MAGGI on any treatment for any Disease he is the one only i can show you all to. You can reach Dr MAGGI on his email on Maggiherbalcenter@gmail.com or . whatsApp him on +1(312)767-3460.or call him on +1(662)9671783
Prediabetes: When blood glucose (also called blood sugar) levels are higher than normal and not yet high enough to be diagnosed with diabetes. That’s an A1C of 5.7 percent to 6.4 percent (a way to estimate your 3-month average blood sugar reading), a fasting blood glucose level of 100 to 125 mg/dl, or an OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test) two hour blood glucose of 140 to 199 mg/dl.

This is now my go to for lo-carb bread recipe. It is SO EASY! I made it last weekend, Instead of Xanthan gum I used konjac root powder, it worked just fine, my baking time was more like 50 minutes and I did cover the top loosely with foil for the first 15 minutes so the top wouldn’t brown so quickly (maybe why my cooking time was so long?) I also added a pinch of Bakers yeast (brewers yeast is NOT gluten free) just for flavor and stevia 3/4 T. This bread makes really good grilled cheese or avocado toast! Very yummy! Thanks for this recipe!
In relation to overall caloric intake, carbohydrates comprise around 55% of the typical American diet, ranging from 200 to 350 g/day. The vast potential of refined carbohydrates to cause harmful effects were relatively neglected until recently. A greater intake of sugar-laden food is associated with a 44% increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity and a 26% increase in the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. In a 2012 study of all cardiometabolic deaths (heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes) in the United States, an estimated 45.4% were associated with suboptimal intakes of 10 dietary factors. The largest estimated mortality was associated with high sodium intake (9.5%), followed by low intake of nuts and seeds (8.5%), high intake of processed meats (8.2%), low intake of omega-3 fats (7.8%), low intake of vegetables 7.6%), low intake of fruits (7.5%), and high intake of artificially sweetened beverages (7.4%). The lowest estimated mortality was associated with low polyunsaturated fats (2.3%) and unprocessed red meats (0.4%). In addition to this direct harm, excess consumption of low-quality carbohydrates may displace and leave no room in the diet for healthier foods like nuts, unprocessed grains,  fruits, and vegetables.

Transfer bread dough to prepared loaf pan, using a wet spatula to even out the top. Cover with a kitchen towel and place in a warm draft-free space for 50-60 minutes until the dough has risen just past the top of the loaf pan. How long it takes depends on your altitude, temperature and humidity- so keep an eye out for it every 15 minutes or so. And keep in mind that if you use a larger loaf pan it won't rise past the top. 
Metabolic syndrome (metabolic syndrome X, insulin resistance syndrome, dysmetabolic syndrome, hypertriglyceridaemic waist, obesity syndrome, Reaven syndrome) is the name for a group of risk factors that increase the risk for ischaemic heart disease (IHD), diabetes and stroke (Fig. 23.1). The metabolic syndrome is diagnosed when at least three of the IHD risk factors listed in Table 23.1 are present. Whether the syndrome, which affects possibly 25% of the US population, is a specific syndrome, and nothing more than the sum of its parts, is controversial.
I can’t believe my GENITAL HERPES and HIV is really cured, i never thought and believed that one day i will live on earth cured of this disease.i have been suffering of this deadly disease Herpes since 7years ago.Happiness is all i see now i never thought that i will live on earth before the year runs out this is a miracle A shot testimony on how i was cured for my HERPES and HIV Virus diseases by Dr Ofemu with his Herbal Root Herbs Medicine, Although this is almost too impossible to believe, but I am here to fulfill my promise to Dr Ofemu, I am a survivor, I am a living proof of this medication, at first it sounded so fake, but my mum encouraged me to continue with the medication, within 3 days I notice the sours in my genitals were all dried up and my tongue stopped paining me, so i stopped taking my Drugs and focused on the herbal medication. I felted my body coming back to life, my skin, my face, no more body weakness and my mum kept praying for me, she was really happy when i was tested negative. This unbelievable transformation have also brought me closer to God, and thanks to Dr Ofemu for his regular checkups, calls, sms and chats. I am CURED, I am CURED and I repeat I AM CURED! I have been a slave of HIV for 3years but it took just 19 days for my cure! God Bless you Sir! contact him now for any kind of diseases problem on his mail (ofemusolutiontemple@gmail.com) whatsapp and call him on or whatsapp his Africa branch on +2348158836673 he is a herbal remedy to all sickness i have copied and sent the link of your contacts to a few DIABETES, HIV/AIDS, HEPATITIS B, CANCER friends, please sir help them and God will increase you! thanks you again sir for putting a smile on my face again so i am posting to this forum saying if you are into similar situation or have any kind of disease problem you can as well contact him for help
i am Julia Ruell, i am so happy to share this testimony on how DR.Maggi was able to heal me from Herpes Disease, well i was detected positive on 21st September 2015, and ever since i have been looking for a way to treat and cure this disease from me, but always i try ther was no solution,few weeks ago my aunt rosa introduce me to doctor Maggi telling him all my problem he told me what we were to do, that he was going to send me a portion which i am going to take, and after seeing testimony of some people on how Dr Maggi was able to cure people from Herpes disease, i also heard about it on media when a young lady also gave her testimony about this same Dr Maggi, well left with no hope i message him and he sent me an herb portion that i will be taken., he told me to go back to the hospital for check up and after i have done that i should come and tell him the good news result, at first when i saw the message i was so shock and still did not believed i will be cured, well friend to make my story short i am cured from herpes now after many time of sorrow, i am Negative, and my sickness are gone, i thank God for leading me to this man….you can email him on Maggiherbalcenter@gmail.com or you can also call,or wattssap him via +2348148487280 he can be of help to you on any problem like {1} HIV/AIDS {2CANCER {3}HERPES {4}DIABETES (5}HERPERTITIS B (6}HPV,.,
Oatmeal is the ultimate morning meal in the winter months—and anytime your soul needs something warm. Ruled.me’s breakfast porridge makes that experience possible on a keto diet. Instead of your usual oats, it’s made with flaxseed meal and coconut flour, and sweetened with erythritol, to keep sugar and carb counts low. (The texture feels something like cream of wheat.)
In addition, as early as in 2008, the Swedish Board of Health and Welfare examined and approved advice on LCHF within the health care system. Advice on LCHF is, according to the Swedish Board of Health and Welfare’s review, in accordance with science and proven knowledge. In other words, certified healthcare professionals, who give such advice (for example myself) can feel completely confident.
Just like you, i read about doctor White on the internet, Like you i had my doubts and was skeptical but unlike many i decided to place my destiny in my own hands by going further to contact and follow his instructions. These is not a testimony but the words of one who have felt the pains of being infected and affected with HIV/AIDS and get cured using natural herbs after being in pains and abandoned for 4 years. I was taking my ARV drugs same time praying to heaven and hoping i will be cured by any means which God answered using doctor White herbal medicines after i have read about his wonderful herbs on YouTube videos posted by a survival. After writing him on Watsapp via/ +1[312]767-3460 and email;Maggiherbalcenter@gmail.com I was amassed by the level of certainty he had by asking i return to do a confirmatory test after using his medicines. I used these medicines for the stipulated weeks and truly the result came out negative i was shocked and could not believe it, i immediately called doctor White who told me to rejoice, pass the good news to my family and share my testimony with others and that’s why I’m doing this. Friends, I am a witness this day that should you contact Doctor White for VIRAL infections like Herpes, Hpv, HIV and Hepatitis B or C and others you will not regret it, or you can see more on his webs:http://drmaggiherbalcenter.webs.com..

Hi James, Thank you for sharing. Most likely this wasn’t fully cooked if it stuck to the parchment paper, as I never have to grease it, but I did add a note to the post that you could do that to be on the safe side. I think the previous recipe and post were not clear enough on how to make sure that it’s done, so I updated them and hope that will help. I’d love to know if that made a difference if you try it again. But, this bread is more similar to fluffy pre-sliced white bread than a crusty bread, so I still would not expect a crust. If you are looking for a crusty bread, try this almond flour bread instead.
The reason a starving person can live for 40-60 days is precisely because we can turn fat into ketones and convert ketones into substrate for the Krebs Cycle in the mitochondria of our neurons. In fact, the more fat you have on your body, the longer you can survive.  As an example of this, you may want to read this remarkable case report of a 382 day medically supervised fast (with only water and electrolytes)!  If we had to rely on glucose, we’d die in a few days.  If we could only rely on protein, we’d live a few more days but become completely debilitated with muscle wasting.
Hello everybody my name is Kathrine, i am from Thailand but living in united kingdom with my family, i want to share a little testimony about a man that helped me cure my HIV. I was HIV positive for 13 years and the only man that helped me cure my disease is Dr Osojo. the spell doctor. he helped me out when I complained everything about me, what my family take me for and how people hated and despised me for been a hiv positive to him and he promise to help me cure this virus, luckily to me he keeps his promise. this man did his powerful herbal spell and sent it to me to take for just 7 days, and immediately after the 7th day this man called me and told me that I should go for test. I was so surprised about it when got the test result which came back as hiv negative with no trace of the virus in me. what a great man on earth, if you need cure email now dr.osojoherbalcureofalldisease@gmail.com and get heal totally. Spell Dr. Osojo als has cures to several diseases such as
Ketone ester drinks can improve performance30. When taken with pre-exercise carbohydrates, a BHB-butanediol (BHB-BD) ketone ester allowed cyclists to ride 2-3% further in a 30 minute time trial than with carbohydrate alone. This is likely to be a combination effect of: Ketones themselves being a highly efficient fuel and improving muscle efficiency. Fuel availability is a key determinant of performance. By increasing the availability of an alternative fuel (ketones) during exercise this spares muscle carbohydrate stores for later in the exercise bout meaning more is available for the end of the test. 
The World Health Organization (WHO) was the first to publish an internationally accepted definition for metabolic syndrome in 1998, but the criteria that have received the most widespread acceptance and use in the United States are those established in 2002 as guidelines in the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program expert panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (ATP III).
In essence, it is a diet that causes the body to release ketones into the bloodstream. Most cells prefer to use blood sugar, which comes from carbohydrates, as the body’s main source of energy. In the absence of circulating blood sugar from food, we start breaking down stored fat into molecules called ketone bodies (the process is called ketosis). Once you reach ketosis, most cells will use ketone bodies to generate energy until we start eating carbohydrates again. The shift, from using circulating glucose to breaking down stored fat as a source of energy, usually happens over two to four days of eating fewer than 20 to 50 grams of carbohydrates per day. Keep in mind that this is a highly individualized process, and some people need a more restricted diet to start producing enough ketones.
Engage in exercise. According to the American Diabetes Association, exercise can help lower your blood sugar level by using the excess sugar as fuel. If, however, your blood sugar level is over 240 mg/dL, use a urine test strip to check your urine for the presence of ketones. When ketones are being produced by the body, exercise can cause your blood sugar levels to rise, rather than decrease. Physical activity can have immediate benefit in lowering blood sugar and also long-term benefit by helping to stabilize blood sugar levels.
Although mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) are generally considered harmful, which is certainly the case at high concentrations, modest levels stimulate necessary biological processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and immunity [3]. Adaptations that enhance resistance to oxidative stress are also induced by mtROS [3], possibly decreasing net ROS production during basal metabolism. This adaptive response is called mitohormesis [4–6] and is a promising mechanism through which lifestyle interventions that enhance mitochondrial function may, in turn, enhance resistance to chronic and degenerative diseases.

When you eat out at a nice place, what comes first? Oh, right. The so-perky-you-want-to-strangle-her girl named Brittany whose pleasure it is to serve you today. But I was talking about the meal itself. Most non-fast-food meals start out with a good salad. What could be healthier? Salads are generally low in both calories and carbohydrates. That means they are good for controlling blood sugar and controlling waistline expansion. An added bonus: if you get filled up with salad, you’ll be less hungry when it comes to the rest of the meal—so you’ll eat less of the stuff that’s “bad” for your blood sugar log. Eating less of that other stuff will help you with Tip Number 4.
Maria is a wellness expert who has helped clients follow a Ketogenic lifestyle to heal and lose weight for over 15 years. She has helped thousands of clients get healthy, get off medications and heal their bodies; losing weight is just a bonus. She is the international best selling author of "Keto.". Click here for Keto. http://amzn.to/2EfrECi Click here for our new Keto Courses: http://keto-adapted.com/school/
When you eat more food than your body needs, it’s converted to triglycerides and stored inside your fat cells. The more often you keep consuming large amounts of glucose through carbohydrate foods, the less your body needs to tap into existing sources (your fat cells or stored glycogen in your liver and muscles) for energy, so your newly added fat cells remain intact and, therefore, weight loss is much more difficult.
In essence, it is a diet that causes the body to release ketones into the bloodstream. Most cells prefer to use blood sugar, which comes from carbohydrates, as the body’s main source of energy. In the absence of circulating blood sugar from food, we start breaking down stored fat into molecules called ketone bodies (the process is called ketosis). Once you reach ketosis, most cells will use ketone bodies to generate energy until we start eating carbohydrates again. The shift, from using circulating glucose to breaking down stored fat as a source of energy, usually happens over two to four days of eating fewer than 20 to 50 grams of carbohydrates per day. Keep in mind that this is a highly individualized process, and some people need a more restricted diet to start producing enough ketones.

My mother was diagnosed with ALS in May 2016. Her doctor put her on riluzole, letting her know there was no cure but the medication might provide her a few more months of delayed symptoms. ALS progresses at different rates and affects different body parts first. My mother, being 73 at the time, fell into a category of what they call “fast progression” (older female). Her arms weakened first, then her hands, her mouth, and throat, and finally her lungs. Throughout her two-and-a-half-year ordeal, she was able to walk with assistance nothing was really working to help her condition.I took her off the riluzole (with the doctor’s knowledge) and started her on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis herbal formula i ordered from Health Herbal Clinic(Maggiherbalcenter@gmail.com) , her symptoms totally declined over a 5 weeks use of the ALS disease natural herbal remedy. She’s now almost 75 and doing very well, the disease is totally reversed!! with the help of dr MAGGI ,contact him today via Maggiherbalcenter@gmail.com you can also add him on whatsapp via +1[312]767-3460.


I tried this with the Psyllium husk powder I had (Konsyl) and it was too gummy. It looks like the Jay Robb is out of stock everywhere. If you had success with this bread using a different brand, would you share with me what brand worked? I could taste in the crust that this will be wonderful once I get the right psyllium. Thanks, everyone! I’m excited to nail this.
BHB, in addition to being an important energy substrate, is also a signaling molecule [100–102]. Although not induced through mtROS, BHB inhibits class I and II histone deacetylases (HDACs) in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in greater histone acetylation regardless of whether BHB is elevated through fasting, caloric restriction, or infusion [103]. This inhibition is associated with increased expression of forkhead box O (FOXO) 3a and metallothionein II and increased protein content of FOXO3a, SOD2, and catalase [103]. Consistent with these changes, the kidneys of mice with elevated blood BHB concentrations (∼1.2 mM) were protected from paraquat-induced (50 mg/kg) oxidative damage to proteins and lipids, which was indicated by lower levels of protein carbonyls, 4-HNE, and lipid peroxides [103]. Upregulation of antioxidant defense by BHB-induced HDAC inhibition also appears to be the mechanism through which exogenous BHB extends lifespan in C. elegans [95]. The dependence of this response on FOXO3a, NFE2L2, and several bioenergetic signaling proteins that influence the activities of these two transcription factors [95] is indicative of the overlap between bioenergetics and antioxidant defense that is characteristic of mitohormesis.
More definitive evidence that metabolic syndrome per se predisposes to coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease has been reported. Thus a twofold to fourfold increase in subsequent cardiovascular events has been described in men and women with metabolic syndrome (modified WHO criteria) even in the absence of type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance.234-236 Qualitatively, similar results have been obtained when metabolic syndrome was defined by ATP III criteria237,238 (Fig. 43-9). In a compilation of multiple studies, the presence of metabolic syndrome had a greater impact on the risk for developing diabetes (fivefold) than ASCVD (twofold).22,182,199 In addition, where studied, the rate of cardiovascular events was higher in patients who had diabetes and metabolic syndrome than in individuals with only metabolic syndrome.22,239

The findings of a stable (Chearskul et al., 2008) or slightly increased response (Sumithran et al., 2013) of post-prandial FFA after KD can be viewed in the nutrient-static context. Elevated circulating FFA may actually reduce food intake and glucose production through actions on specific hypothalamic neurons (Obici et al., 2003). It has been suggested that this effect could be mediated by the increase of cellular concentration of long-chain FAs-CoA in the arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus (Obici et al., 2003).
AMPK and sirtuins are the interface between the metabolic stimuli of nutritional ketosis and the downstream signaling that influences expression of proteins related to bioenergetics and antioxidant defense. Some of the primary downstream signaling molecules involved include PGC-1α, FOXO3a, nuclear respiratory factors 1 and 2 (NRF-1 and NRF-2), mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), and NFE2L2.
One particular concern to be aware of is the risk for ketoacidosis, which especially applies to diabetics. Ketoacidosis is a dangerous metabolic state in which excessive amounts of ketones are produced. In mostly healthy individuals, ketosis is regulated by insulin, which is the hormone that controls the creation of ketone bodies and regulates the flow of fatty acids into the blood.

Exogenous ketones: Very little is known about the effects of exogenous ketones on cancer. However, as exogenous ketones can also lower blood sugar and elevate BHB they could be helpful by a similar mechanism to the ketogenic diet. Exogenous ketones may even be preferable to the ketogenic diet, as patients can eat a wider range of palatable and calorically dense food to maintain their strength during treatment. One animal study showed that ketone ester supplementation (acetoacetate diester) decreased tumour size and prolonged the survival of mice with metastatic cancer100. 
Whether ketosis is taking place can be checked by using special urine test strips. The strips have a small pad on the end, which the user dips in a fresh urine specimen. Within seconds, the strip changes color to indicate the level of acetoacetate ketone bodies, which reflects the degree of ketonuria, which, in turn, gives a rough estimate of the level of hyperketonemia in the body (see table below). Alternatively, some products targeted to diabetics such as the Abbott Precision Xtra or the Nova Max can be used to take a blood sample and measure the β-hydroxybutyrate ketone levels directly. Normal serum reference ranges for ketone bodies are 0.5–3.0 mg/dL, equivalent to 0.05–0.29 mmol/L.[29]
Eating mindfully. A child who learns to see food as fuel and not emotional compensation can start to make better choices at mealtime — for example, selecting complex carbs instead of simple carbs (whole-grain instead of white bread, brown rice instead of white); getting more fiber with beans, fruits, and vegetables; choosing "healthy" fats like olive oil and nuts; and avoiding too many empty calories from soda and sweets.
If you are overweight, losing weight can help reduce your risk of types 2 diabetes. Eating smaller portions can help you cut calories and still feel satisfied. Wright recommends thinking of your hunger on a scale of 1 (not hungry) to 10 (starved) to help with portions. “People are more mindful about their food choices if they eat when their hunger is a 5 or 6,” she says. “That way, you are not desperate and starving.”
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Loaded with protein-packed ground beef, sharp cheddar, veggies, and everyone's favorite taco add-ons (salsa and sour cream, anyone?), this skillet from Peace, Love, and Low Carb is like eating nachos for breakfast — minus the chips. The best part: It can be meal prepped ahead of time for a week's worth of breakfasts. (Just leave the toppings off and add them after you've heated up a serving in the morning.) Who says tacos only belong on Tuesdays?
Although mitohormesis has not been studied comprehensively in higher-level organisms, its occurrence is supported by compelling evidence in lower-level organisms. For example, inhibition of glycolysis in C. elegans increased fat oxidation (based on nematode triglyceride content) and mitochondrial O2 consumption, which was followed by increases in ROS production at day 2 and catalase activity at day 6 [72]. The increase in catalase activity occurred in conjunction with increases in lifespan and resistance to the mitochondrial stressors sodium azide and paraquat. However, antioxidant treatment (N-acetylcysteine) decreased the elevation of ROS at day 2 and eliminated the resistance to sodium azide and paraquat treatments, indicating a requirement of ROS as a stimulus [72].
While tender, chocolatey donuts are perfect on their own, this keto breakfast recipe amps them up with a rich and sweet glaze. Pair with coffee and tea, or enjoy as dessert (if you can wait that long). At just over 2 net carbs per donut, they’re basically guilt-free. For more Bulletproof donuts, use grass-fed butter and mold-free coffee, plus full-fat coconut milk instead of heavy cream in the glaze.
Hi Melissa, Are you beating the whole eggs? It needs to be egg whites only. Whole eggs will never form peaks. Adding a little cream of tartar helps, as well as making sure you start with a very clean bowl (preferably not plastic if you’re having issues). Having the egg whites at room temperature can be a little easier, too, though I usually don’t need to. Hope this answers your question!
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I’m here to testify about what DR. MAGGI did for me. I have been suffering from (GENITAL HERPES VIRUS) disease for the past 3 years and had constant pain and inching, especially in my private part. During the first year, I had faith in God that i would be cured someday.This disease started circulating all over my body and I have been taking treatment from my doctor, few weeks ago I came across a testimony of Rose Smith on the internet testifying about a Man called DR. MAGGI on how he cured her from 7 years HSV 2. And she also gave the email address of this man, advise anybody to contact him for help on any kind of diseases that he would be of help, so I emailed him telling him about my (HSV 2) he told me not to worry that I was going to be cured!! Well, I never doubted him I have faith he can cure me too,, DR. MAGGI prepared and sent me Healing Oil, Soap, roots and herbs which I took. In the first one week, I started experiencing changes all over me, after four weeks of using his Roots/ Herbs, Oil and Soap, I was totally cured. no more inching , pain on me anymore as DR. MAGGI assured me. After some time I went to my doctor to do another test behold the result came out negative. So friends my advise is if you have such disease or know anyone who suffers from it or any other disease like HPV, HBV, HIV, ALS, HBP, CANCER etc. you can contact DR. MAGGI for help via email} Maggiherbalcenter@gmail.com or call +1(662) 967-1783 or whatsapp him on +1(306) 993-9253, Thanks once again DR. MAGGI for making me a happy woman again. or visit his web:drmaggiherbalcenter.webs.com.

Transfer bread dough to prepared loaf pan, using a wet spatula to even out the top. Cover with a kitchen towel and place in a warm draft-free space for 50-60 minutes until the dough has risen just past the top of the loaf pan. How long it takes depends on your altitude, temperature and humidity- so keep an eye out for it every 15 minutes or so. And keep in mind that if you use a larger loaf pan it won't rise past the top. 


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Metabolic syndrome is increasing in prevalence, paralleling an increasing epidemic of obesity. In the United States, where almost two thirds of the population is overweight or obese, more than one fourth of the population meets diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome. [25] In the United States, data from a 1999-2000 survey showed that the age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adults aged 20 years or older had risen from 27% (data from 1988-1994) to 32%. [26]
Following a low calorie diet: The exact mechanism whereby caloric restriction can slow or prevent cancer is unknown. It may be linked to: decreased blood glucose (less fuel for cancer cells), raised ketones (antiinflammatory, decreased oxidative stress, decreased ability to use glucose) . Animal models have shown that caloric restriction is closely related to tumour incidence and progression94.
A high proportion of energy from ketone oxidation is transferred to the electron transport chain at the start (as NADH+), in comparison to the energy from fat, where a high proportion is transferred ‘downstream’ (as FADH). This means that, even though there is a high amount of ‘potential energy’ in a fat molecule, less of this can be transferred to ATP.   

sdLDL. This is a measurement of the number of small dense low-density lipoprotein molecules a person has. LDL varies in size, and the smaller denser molecules, which tend to form when elevated triglycerides and VLDL are present in the blood, are thought to be more aggressive in causing atherosclerosis. This test is now commercially available, but is not performed by many laboratories and is not ordered frequently. Its ultimate clinical utility has yet to be determined. It may be evaluated in a LDL particle testing.
High-density lipoprotein (HDL – the "good" cholesterol) ordinarily transports excess cholesterol from the tissues back to the liver. In the liver, the cholesterol is either recycled for future use or excreted into bile. HDL's reverse transport is the only way that cells can get rid of excess cholesterol. It helps protect the arteries and, if there is enough HDL present, it can even reverse the build up of fatty plaques in the arteries. When there are excessive amounts of VLDL and triglyceride present, however, HDL concentrations in the blood decrease.
Another aspect of mitochondrial function influenced by ketones is the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Prolonged opening of the mPTP is one of the mechanisms through which mtROS can induce cellular injury and promote disease [114]. In neurons isolated from rat brain slices, treatment with BHB + ACA has decreased the mtROS production, mPTP opening, and cell death induced by H2O2 [115]. This protective effect was duplicated with catalase, even in conjunction with diamide-induced opening of the mPTP, indicating that the protective effect of BHB and ACA is at least partly due to defense against ROS [115]. In a mouse model of epilepsy, this decrease in mPTP opening was found to be induced exclusively by BHB, and in a manner dependent on the cyclophilin D subunit of the mPTP [116]. BHB in combination with ACA also appears to promote opening of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ (mtKATP) channels [117], which in heart mitochondria is known to protect against Ca+ overload [118] and dissipate membrane potential (ΔΨ) [119]. Since high ΔΨ promotes mtROS production, dissipation of ΔΨ through mtKATP channels may partly explain the potential for ketones to decrease mtROS production. However, opening of mtKATP channels by pinacidil decreases mitochondrial ATP production [119], which is consistent with dissipation of ΔΨ and suggests a compromise between ATP and mtROS production.
In general, a person with metabolic syndrome is twice as likely to develop IHD and five times as likely to develop diabetes as someone without it. The probability of developing metabolic syndrome is also closely linked to a lack of physical activity and the fact of being overweight/obese. Other causes include insulin resistance, ethnicity (often Asian), family history, older age and other factors (Box 23.1). Associated diseases and signs may be raised uric acid levels, hepatic steatosis, haemochromatosis and acanthosis nigricans. Metabolic syndrome may be associated with inflammatory periodontal disease.
One of the foods that people tell us they miss most after going keto is bread. (And cookies or cakes, but you get the idea.) We get it, bread is undeniably comfort food. Growing up, it wasn’t unheard of to eat toast for breakfast, a sandwich for lunch, and maybe even a slice of buttered bread along with dinner. Not only is that ton of carbs, but it’s also a lot of empty calories when we could have been eating real-food alternatives, like this bread made from nutrient-dense ingredients!
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