PGC-1α coactivates all three known PPAR isoforms (PPARα, PPARδ, and PPARγ) . Although each isoform is expressed in a variety of tissues, PPARα is prominently expressed in the liver, PPARδ in skeletal muscle, the heart, and the pancreas, and PPARγ in adipose [286, 296]. PGC-1α was discovered and named based on its promotion of brown adipose differentiation through coactivation of PPARγ and subsequent induction of mitochondrial biogenesis and UCP1 expression . However, it is the PGC-1α coactivation of PPARα that is responsible for the upregulated transcription of many of the enzymes responsible for increased ketogenesis and fatty acid metabolism in response to a ketogenic diet . Consistent with the role of PGC-1α in inducing mitochondrial biogenesis, it also shifts skeletal muscle fiber composition towards type I [298, 299] and type IIa , which are more oxidative. AMPK also contributes to fiber type changes and is required for the transition of highly glycolytic, type IIb fibers to more oxidative, type IIa fibers . Although PGC-1α is primarily known for inducing transcription of nuclear DNA, it may also, in conjunction with SIRT1, induce expression of mtDNA .
My first attempt of this bread leaves something to be desired. It looked great when it came out of the oven but as it cooled it caved a bit; and when I took it out of the pan when it had cooled, I realized that the bottom inch looked undercooked, very wet. After reading ALL of Maria’s remarks to other folks who have had problems (I am not alone), I will try again adding less water next time. For now I will use the loaf I just made and turn it into croutons or bagel chips as suggested by Ellen (thanks for sharing some positives from a negative). Maria, I applaud you for your endless patience with all of us all who keep asking the same questions over and over again.
I just made this bread today and MAN, IS IT GOOD!!!! I realized I used salted butter and pink sea salt and maybe that gave it an added boost too. It was super hard for me to try and fold in the almond flour mixture to the egg whites, but now that I watch the video, I see I could have mixed the food processor part more first. I was so scared to collapse my egg whites. I also see your bread was the same size as mine, so I must have done ok. I will say again, WOW it is sooo good! I already ate two pieces with butter, just because. oops! Good thing it was only 1 carb each. =)))) Thank you, thank you!
AMPK is activated through phosphorylation of the Thr172 residue of the AMPK α catalytic subunit [174–176], and this phosphorylation is largely regulated by molecules related to bioenergetic homeostasis including AMP, ADP, catecholamines, adiponectin, glycogen, and insulin. In general, AMPK is activated by energy deficit and induces signaling that upregulates energy production. AMP and ADP are direct byproducts of energy depletion while adiponectin and catecholamines serve as endocrine signals to increase energy production, often in response to energy depletion. In contrast, indications of energy surplus, such as glycogen and insulin, inhibit activation of AMPK. Nutritional ketosis increases the aforementioned factors that activate AMPK and decreases those that inhibit AMPK, suggesting that nutritional ketosis is similar to caloric restriction in inducing a signal of energy depletion.
Overweight individuals with metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes are likely to see improvements in the clinical markers of disease risk with a well-formulated very-low-carbohydrate diet. Glucose control improves due to less glucose introduction and improved insulin sensitivity. In addition to reducing weight, especially truncal obesity and insulin resistance, low-carb diets also may help improve blood pressure, blood glucose regulation, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol levels. However, LDL cholesterol may increase on this diet.
High blood sugar levels, or hyperglycemia, is a condition in which glucose concentrations in the blood are too high. This condition is commonly found in individuals who have diabetes and is caused when the body does not produce enough of or is resistant to the effects of the hormone insulin. When high blood sugar is left untreated, it can lead to organ and tissue damage, coma and death. Monitoring your blood sugar levels is a good way to address high sugar immediately and there are several ways to lower sugar levels in the blood.
Additional research has raised the possibility that metabolic syndrome adversely affects neurocognitive performance.  In particular, metabolic syndrome has been blamed for accelerated cognitive aging.  Patients with mental illnesses also face increased cardiometabolic risk due at least in part to socioeconomic factors such as greater poverty and poorer access to medical care. [72, 73]
But without carbs, sandwiches aren’t available either, and if there’s one thing followers of these diets miss the most, it’s got to be bread. Luckily, enterprising food-lovers following a keto diet have figured out a work-around. It’s called “90 Second Keto Bread” and it’s popping up all over the internet. Think of it like a mug cake version of a biscuit that happens to look a lot like an English muffin.
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Anyone with metabolic syndrome should make every attempt to reduce their body weight to within 20% of their "ideal" body weight (calculated for age and height), and to incorporate aerobic exercise (at least 20 minutes) into their daily lifestyle. With vigorous efforts to reduce weight and increase exercise, metabolic syndrome can be reversed, and the risk for cardiovascular complications can be substantially improved.
There is debate regarding whether obesity or insulin resistance is the cause of the metabolic syndrome or if they are consequences of a more far-reaching metabolic derangement. A number of markers of systemic inflammation, including C-reactive protein, are often increased, as are fibrinogen, interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and others. Some have pointed to a variety of causes, including increased uric acid levels caused by dietary fructose.
And the one thing to keep in mind is that your bread will likely fall slightly post bake. Blame it on the lack of starch (keto flours are notoriously heavy and moist) and certain missing proteins (think gluten). Just keep in mind that we’re baking at ridiculously high altitude here, so if our loaf was still nearly double it’s volume after cooling- odds are yours will be even better!
Metabolic syndrome is defined as the presence of a cluster of risk factors that are associated with a significantly higher risk for cardiovascular disease in the general population. The definitions for metabolic syndrome from different expert groups are somewhat different but generally include measures of adiposity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and abnormal fasting blood glucose levels. Insulin resistance is the dominant but not the only condition underlying the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. The different components of the metabolic syndrome are independent risk factors for the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD); hence, patients with metabolic syndrome are significantly more likely to have CKD. Conversely, metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in patients with ESRD, including among those undergoing maintenance dialysis.
Like many variables in diet, health, and disease, it behooves us to look beyond the bumper sticker explanation. I want to highlight a couple of posts I wrote, to attempt to provide a little more nuance and understanding to the subject: “Ketosis — advantaged or misunderstood state?” Parts I and II. Part I follows below. I’m hoping to write more on the topic in the not-too-distant future since there’s been a number of intriguing papers published recently (certainly since 2012). But I also wanted to bring these back into focus in light of the information I’m seeing more of on the interwebz. (You can also visit the Ketosis section of the site to view more articles on the subject.)
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Populations living further north had much less edible vegetation available for gathering. Thankfully for us, animals that lived in these areas ate the vegetation inedible to us, effectively transforming it into fatty meat we could hunt and enjoy. These people most certainly relied on high levels of fat and protein, thus likely spending most of their time in ketosis.
Preliminary evidence suggests certain other supplements, including aloe, ashwagandha, ginkgo, green coffee bean extract, glucosamine, black cohosh, rhodiola, reishi mushroom and tart cherry juice may lower blood sugar. While there is not enough clinical research to support the use of these supplements for this purpose, it's important to keep this in mind, as they could enhance the blood sugar lowering effect of other supplements or medications you may be taking.
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When i first heard about herbal remedy i never believe on such word until i had an encounter with a great traditional herbalist that was introduced to me by a friend that suffered from same genital herpes and was cure by this same man so i decided to contact him too to help get rid of my genital herpes virus i got from my cheating boyfriend.. all i was told to provide was just some useful information and some bush leaves, tree roots. He got them by himself and prepare the natural herbal cure and sent it to me with a tree roots branch to chew which i did for two week according to him. completely a month the pains the sore were gone, my skin were glowing which i haven’t experience in long long time…my doctor said what happen to me is a miracle but i never told him i had herbal medication from Africa because he wouldn’t approve it. my advise to all herpes patience is you should seek for the right herbal remedy and put an end to that virus.contact this herbalist today on Email Excelherbalcure@gmail.com or call his phone +1 (859) 429 1007
Yes, beating the egg whites until semi-stiff could trap even more air and result in fluffier bread. If you try it, can you let us know how it went? I’d be super interested to hear. As for the rise, it really depends on your tin. If it’s a large (regular) bread tin, your bread would probably not rise above. If you use a half-sized (ca 500g) tin, it should.
Drinking water helps your kidneys flush out excess blood sugar through your urine. One study found that people who drank more water had a lower risk of developing hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). Can’t seem to drink enough? If water is just too plain for your taste buds, add slices of citrus, or sip on a flavored seltzer or herbal tea throughout the day to hit your hydration quota.
You’ll recall, from the point I made above, that my brain requires about 400 to 500 kcal of glucose per day (100 to 120 gm). You’ll also recall (from the video, above) that I can store about 100 to 120 gm of glucose in my liver. While I can store much more in my muscles, (on the order of about 300 to 350 gm), because muscles lack the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase, glucose stored in muscle as glycogen is unable to re-enter the bloodstream and is meant for the muscle and the muscle alone to use. In other words, muscle glycogen is a stranded asset of glucose in the body to be used only by the muscle.
Theoretically, supplying ketones during this period of compromised glucose metabolism could prevent the energy deficit and reduce the likelihood of long-term brain damage. This could be because ketones can act as an alternative, highly energy efficient substrate7. Additionally, the antioxidant, antiinflammatory33 and anti-apoptosis properties of ketones (i.e ketones prevent the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, which causes cell death66) could protect against neuronal loss and damage.
Finally made this recipe, is my second bread recipe I’ve made and the top is nice but the inside always feels moist … I am putting it in the oven a bit more to see if it dries out, is that the texture that it should have because of the butter or what? I liked the flavor! Just not sure of how is supposed to be inside. I haven’t watched the video yet. Thanks!!
Fanatic? Someone with T2D, a disease usually claimed to be progressive and a never ending stream of problems and medications, was REVERSED. That’s something to shout from the rooftops. The drop in medication use alone, but the big pharma companies would prefer that people’s stories of reversing (well, putting it into remission) T2D get called fanatical instead of insightful.
Maria – I have been looking at this recipe for years. I have bought everything needed over time, down to the kitchen scale but never baked it. For some reason baking bread made me nervous! Well tonight I bit the bullet and tried it out. It was so easy!! I followed your recipe to a T, measured everything…it came our perfectly! Thank you for all you do! The bread is delicious it’s been years since I’ve enjoyed a slice of bread with butter on it! (Kerry a Gold of course!)
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So, if I’m deprived of a dietary source of glucose, I depend solely on my liver to release glycogen (a process known as hepatic glucose output, or HGO). How long can HGO supply my brain with sufficient glucose? It depends on a few things that impact both the “source” and the “sink” of glucose. Other competing sinks for glucose (e.g., activity level, thermogenic needs) and sources (e.g., glycerol and gluconeogenic amino acid availability) can make a difference for a while. But, in a state of starvation we’ve only got about one to three days before we’re in trouble. If our brain doesn’t get a hold of something else, besides glucose, we will die quite unceremoniously.
Moreover, recent studies show that the Inuit have evolved a number of rare genetic adaptations that make them especially well suited to eat large amounts of omega-3 fat. And earlier studies showed that the Inuit have a very high frequency—68% to 81% in certain arctic coastal populations—of an extremely rare autosomal recessive mutation of the CPT1A gene—a key regulator of mitochondrial long-chain fatty-acid oxidation—which results in a rare metabolic disorder known as carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) deficiency and promotes hypoketotic hypoglycemia—low levels of ketones and low blood sugar. The condition presents symptoms of a fatty acid and ketogenesis disorder. However, it appears highly beneficial to the Inuit as it shunts free fatty acids away from liver cells to brown fat, for thermogenesis. Thus the mutation may help the Inuit stay warm by preferentially burning fatty acids for heat in brown fat cells. In addition to promoting low ketone levels, this disorder also typically results in hepatic encephalopathy (altered mental state due to improper liver function), enlarged liver and high infant mortality. Inuit have been observed to have enlarged livers with an increased capacity for gluconeogenesis, and have greater capacity for excreting urea to remove ammonia, a toxic byproduct of protein breakdown. Ethnographic texts have documented the Inuit's customary habit of snacking frequently  and this may well be a direct consequence of their high prevalence of the CPT1A mutation as fasting, even for several hours, can be deleterious for individuals with that allele, particularly during strenuous exercise. The high frequency of the CPT1A mutation in the Inuit therefore suggests that it is an important adaptation to their low carbohydrate diet and their extreme environment.
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More specific to mitochondrial function, treatment with BHB + ACA (1 mM each) has decreased O2•− production in isolated rat neuronal mitochondria following glutamate exposure . This occurred in conjunction with decreased NADH levels, suggesting that ketones may additionally decrease mtROS production by enhancing electron transport along the mtETC after NADH oxidation and, in turn, decreasing mitochondrial Δp and associated O2•− production. The observed decrease in mitochondrial O2•− production occurred independently of glutathione , but in isolated and stunned hearts from guinea pigs, treatment with 5 mM ACA increased GSH and the NADPH/NADP+ ratio , suggesting that glutathione may be involved to some extent.
At the University of Leicester, scientists have showing that the level of sugar in your blood can affect blood vessels which in turn can have potentially dangerous effects on your heart and blood pressure. Glucose has an important role to play in the normal functions of the cardiovascular system. Untreated high sugar levels can lead to life threatening illnesses.
When preparing keto bread recipes, look out for low-carb ingredients that could contribute to brain fog and inflammation. Skip recipes that require conventional dairy or yeast, and avoid eating common keto bread ingredients like psyllium husk, xanthan gum, and nuts or nut butters too often — these can contain mold or irritate your gut. Grass-fed butter, ghee, and coconut flour are the few exceptions that will still produce a stellar loaf.