Admittedly, I started my journey on this path in 2009, with a deep dive into ketosis in the Spring of 2011, but it seemed so obscure! (For a timeline of what I did, I think I covered it somewhere in this talk…yes I’m too lazy to actually confirm this by skimming through it.) All told I spent approximately 3 years in the strictest state of nutritional ketosis (NK) with one very memorable deviation when I had 6 or 7 full-sized and upsettingly decadent desserts circa September 2013. I believe the diet helped me transition from metabolic syndrome to metabolic health and I certainly thought it could benefit other people. This nutritional state could gain some steam, I thought.
Clinical trials of various ketogenic agents have shown promising outcomes in AD. Recently, a case report was published describing a dramatic improvement in cognitive function in a patient consuming daily drinks of a ketone ester of beta-hydroxybutyrate-butanediol54. This corroborates evidence from animal studies of AD, which showed behavioural and anatomical improvements in AD mice treated with the same ketone ester55. Also, medical foods containing medium chain triglycerides can give an acute improvement in cognitive scores in AD patients 56 ,57. The effectiveness of this treatment was found to depend on the absence of a gene variant that has been associated to increased chance of AD, called APOE4. Finally, following a ketogenic diet for 6 weeks improved the symptoms of mild cognitive impairment58. It is still early days, but the use of ketogenic diets and exogenous ketones may help to improve the quality of life of patients with dementia and their caregivers.             
Fathead dough is a low carb/keto dough that is made out of cream cheese, mozzarella cheese, eggs and a flour substitute. It started out as a pizza crust recipe published by Tom Naughton while he was creating the movie Fat Head. The recipe became an internet viral sensation and has since been adapted and modified for recipes beyond pizza crust, such as breadsticks, bread rolls and bagels.
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White mulberry (Moruns alba or Morus indica) has been traditionally used in Asia to help treat type 2 diabetes, and there is some preliminary evidence to support this use. Mulberry leaf extract (species not given) may lessen increases in blood sugar after ingestion of table sugar in healthy people and people with type 2 diabetes (Mudra, Diabetes Care 2007). Among people with type 2 diabetes, taking 1 gram of powdered white mulberry leaf three times daily (after breakfast, lunch and dinner) for four weeks was found to lower fasting blood sugar by 27%, while taking 5 mg of the anti-diabetes drug glibenclamide lowered fasting blood sugar by only 8% (Andallu, Clin Chim Acta 2001).
^ Ringberg TM, White RG, Holleman DF, Luick JR (1981). "Body growth and carcass composition of lean reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandusL.) from birth to sexual maturity" (PDF). Canadian Journal of Zoology. 59 (6): 1040–1044. doi:10.1139/z81-145. ISSN 0008-4301. Body growth and carcass composition were measured in lean reindeer during the juvenile growth period between birth and 3 years of age. Mean carcass weight in these lean reindeer was 56 ± 4% of body weight and the deposition of body muscle and bone mass was linearly correlated with body weight after the 1st month of age. The weight of the brain relative to body weight and carcass weight declined, while the relative changes in heart, liver, kidneys, parotid glands, and tissues of the gastrointestinal tract were small after the neonatal period. The extractable fat content in carcasses increased from 4.4 to 11.4% of wet weight or approximately 100 g fat at birth and 3.5 kg fat in adult reindeer. Fat-free dry matter represented a constant percentage (18–20%) of wet carcass weight independent of body weight after the neonatal period, while a significant inverse relationship between carcass fat and body water was found.
High-sensitivity C-reactive protein has been developed and used as a marker to predict coronary vascular diseases in metabolic syndrome, and it was recently used as a predictor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (steatohepatitis) in correlation with serum markers that indicated lipid and glucose metabolism.[45] Fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis can be considered as manifestations of metabolic syndrome, indicative of abnormal energy storage as fat in ectopic distribution. Reproductive disorders (such as polycystic ovary syndrome in women of reproductive age), and erectile dysfunction or decreased total testosterone (low testosterone-binding globulin) in men can be attributed to metabolic syndrome.[46]

Hi Melissa, Are you beating the whole eggs? It needs to be egg whites only. Whole eggs will never form peaks. Adding a little cream of tartar helps, as well as making sure you start with a very clean bowl (preferably not plastic if you’re having issues). Having the egg whites at room temperature can be a little easier, too, though I usually don’t need to. Hope this answers your question!
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Another mechanism that could be involved in food-regulation during KD is the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate regulation. Wu et al. demonstrated that GABAergic signaling from the NPY/AgRP neurons to the parabrachial nucleus (located in the dorsolateral part of the pons) is involved in many regulatory sensory stimuli including taste and gastric distension, regulate feeding behavior. GABA signaling seems to prevent animals from anorexia when AgRP neurons were destroyed (Wu et al., 2009). These findings are yet another contradictory aspect of KDs and food behavior; ketosis should increase the availability of glutamate (via diminution of transamination of glutamate to aspartate) and therefore increase GABA and glutamine levels; moreover, in ketosis, the brain imports a huge amount of acetate and converts it through glia into glutamine (an important precursor of GABA) (Yudkoff et al., 2008). The result of these mechanisms, together with the increased mitochondrial metabolism and flux through the TCA cycle, is an increased synthesis of glutamine and a “buffering” of glutamate. These results are not consistent with the well-documented anorexigenic effect of KDs, and therefore the GABA hypothesis cannot be taken into account despite the mild euphoria often reported during a KD that is probably due to the action of BHB (Brown, 2007) and can help to reduce appetite.

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Although mitohormesis has not been studied comprehensively in higher-level organisms, its occurrence is supported by compelling evidence in lower-level organisms. For example, inhibition of glycolysis in C. elegans increased fat oxidation (based on nematode triglyceride content) and mitochondrial O2 consumption, which was followed by increases in ROS production at day 2 and catalase activity at day 6 [72]. The increase in catalase activity occurred in conjunction with increases in lifespan and resistance to the mitochondrial stressors sodium azide and paraquat. However, antioxidant treatment (N-acetylcysteine) decreased the elevation of ROS at day 2 and eliminated the resistance to sodium azide and paraquat treatments, indicating a requirement of ROS as a stimulus [72].
The previous definitions of the metabolic syndrome by the International Diabetes Federation[40] and the revised National Cholesterol Education Program are very similar and they identify individuals with a given set of symptoms as having metabolic syndrome. There are two differences, however: the IDF definition states that if body mass index (BMI) is greater than 30 kg/m2, central obesity can be assumed, and waist circumference does not need to be measured. However, this potentially excludes any subject without increased waist circumference if BMI is less than 30. Conversely, the NCEP definition indicates that metabolic syndrome can be diagnosed based on other criteria. Also, the IDF uses geography-specific cut points for waist circumference, while NCEP uses only one set of cut points for waist circumference regardless of geography. These two definitions are much more similar than the original NCEP and WHO definitions.
I still have trouble finding it palatable with savory sandwitches, though. I wanted to try the receipe with gluten free oat flour or using other more neutral flours or starches that don’t contain that much PUFA’s and are more heat stable (vs. almond), since I do OK with carbs on training days. The amount of flour will still be quit low in this receipe.

The metabolic syndrome can be induced by overfeeding with sugar or fructose, particularly concomitantly with high-fat diet.[36] The resulting oversupply of omega-6 fatty acids, particularly arachidonic acid (AA), is an important factor in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome.[medical citation needed] Arachidonic acid (with its precursor – linoleic acid) serve as a substrate to the production of inflammatory mediators known as eicosanoids, whereas the arachidonic acid-containing compound diacylglycerol (DAG) is a precursor to the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) while fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) mediates the metabolism of anandamide into arachidonic acid.[37][35] Anandamide can also be produced from N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine via several pathways.[35] Anandamide and 2-AG can also be hydrolized into arachidonic acid, potentially leading to increased eicosanoid synthesis.[35]
Lowering your overall intake of carbohydrates is also important for balanced blood sugar, but you don’t need to cut them completely (they're still a crucial source of fuel for your body). Simply swap out refined carbohydrates like bread, white pasta, and candy for fiber-rich, whole-food sources such as whole grains, sweet potatoes, and fruit, which contain a number of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants essential for health.
I want you to start drinking. A lot. Of water. (Sorry for the letdown.) In fact, I want you to drink only water. Never, ever, ever drink a calorie. Stick with water, and drink a lot of it. It’s good for you, and like an early salad, water can help keep hunger at bay. I’d also like you to avoid diet sodas, at least on a regular basis. Though they don’t have any calories, diet sodas cause folks who drink a lot of them to have a harder time losing weight. No one is sure why.
We have solid evidence showing that a ketogenic diet reduces seizures in children, sometimes as effectively as medication. Because of these neuroprotective effects, questions have been raised about the possible benefits for other brain disorders such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, multiple sclerosis, sleep disorders, autism, and even brain cancer. However, there are no human studies to support recommending ketosis to treat these conditions.

A sustainable exercise program, for example 30 minutes five days a week is reasonable to start, providing there is no medical contraindication. (If you have any special concerns in this regard, check with your doctor first.) There is a beneficial effect of exercise on blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and insulin sensitivity, regardless of whether weight loss is achieved or not. Thus, exercise in itself is a helpful tool in treating metabolic syndrome.
Brain glucose and KB uptake was investigated in rats subjected to mild experimental ketonemia induced by 2 weeks on the KD or by 48 h fasting. To test this, researchers developed a carbon-11 labeled AcAc (11)C-AcAc for PET use. They found in rats that after 10 days of KD (11)C-AcAc brain uptake increased up to 8-fold, an increase comparable to those measured after 48 h of fasting (Pifferi et al., 2008).

Theresa, Thanks so much for your comment! We aren’t sure what you mean though; our recipe above calls for 2 cups (224g) of almond flour, which is the same measurement you mentioned from the brand you use (112g per 1 cup X 2 cups = 224g). It may be helpful to reach out to a particular almond flour manufacturer if you have a product-specific question. We hope this helps and happy keto baking!
In the absence of acetyl CoA (several ways this can happen, including substrate shortage, as I’m describing here) we evolved a cool trick.  Our liver can make – out of fat or protein, though we much prefer to use fat so we can spare our protein and prevent severe muscle wasting – something called beta-hydroxybutyrate, one of the 3 ketone bodies I described above.

Clinical trials of various ketogenic agents have shown promising outcomes in AD. Recently, a case report was published describing a dramatic improvement in cognitive function in a patient consuming daily drinks of a ketone ester of beta-hydroxybutyrate-butanediol54. This corroborates evidence from animal studies of AD, which showed behavioural and anatomical improvements in AD mice treated with the same ketone ester55. Also, medical foods containing medium chain triglycerides can give an acute improvement in cognitive scores in AD patients 56 ,57. The effectiveness of this treatment was found to depend on the absence of a gene variant that has been associated to increased chance of AD, called APOE4. Finally, following a ketogenic diet for 6 weeks improved the symptoms of mild cognitive impairment58. It is still early days, but the use of ketogenic diets and exogenous ketones may help to improve the quality of life of patients with dementia and their caregivers.             


Sorry, I realized I should have clarified which kind of freshly milled flours. Specifically, wheat, rye and spelt. I have been using freshly milled flour for over a year now and my family loves it. I have recently bought 3 of your books and I am learning all kinds of wonderful new things, but I am having a hard time letting go of freshly milled flour completely. Your thoughts on the subject would be much appreciated!
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In sheep, ketosis, evidenced by hyperketonemia with beta-hydroxybutyrate in blood over 0.7 mmol/L, occurs in pregnancy toxemia.[78][79] This may develop in late pregnancy in ewes bearing multiple fetuses,[78][79] and is associated with the considerable glucose demands of the conceptuses.[80][81] In ruminants, because most glucose in the digestive tract is metabolized by rumen organisms, glucose must be supplied by gluconeogenesis,[82] for which propionate (produced by rumen bacteria and absorbed across the rumen wall) is normally the principal substrate in sheep, with other gluconeogenic substrates increasing in importance when glucose demand is high or propionate is limited.[83][84] Pregnancy toxemia is most likely to occur in late pregnancy because most fetal growth (and hence most glucose demand) occurs in the final weeks of gestation; it may be triggered by insufficient feed energy intake (anorexia due to weather conditions, stress or other causes),[79] necessitating reliance on hydrolysis of stored triglyceride, with the glycerol moiety being used in gluconeogenesis and the fatty acid moieties being subject to oxidation, producing ketone bodies.[78] Among ewes with pregnancy toxemia, beta-hydroxybutyrate in blood tends to be higher in those that die than in survivors.[85] Prompt recovery may occur with natural parturition, Caesarean section or induced abortion. Prevention (through appropriate feeding and other management) is more effective than treatment of advanced stages of ovine ketosis.[86]
Various strategies have been proposed to prevent the development of metabolic syndrome. These include increased physical activity (such as walking 30 minutes every day),[48] and a healthy, reduced calorie diet.[49] Many studies support the value of a healthy lifestyle as above. However, one study stated these potentially beneficial measures are effective in only a minority of people, primarily due to a lack of compliance with lifestyle and diet changes.[12] The International Obesity Taskforce states that interventions on a sociopolitical level are required to reduce development of the metabolic syndrome in populations.[50]

Weigh your ingredients. This will forever be a staple recommendation for any sort of gluten free baking here at gnom-gnom. As aside from leading to less dirty dishes, it will ensure consistent results time and time again. Remember that gluten free (and particularly keto) baking is notoriously finicky, and measuring by cups is anything but accurate. And if you don’t own a baking scale, measure with cups by dropping the ingredients onto them rather than scooping them out (which often leads to overpacking).

I have a loaf cooling on the counter right now. I couldn’t wait to take a piece of it so I hacked a piece off after 5 minutes and tasted it. I don’t get it, it’s the closest thing to real bread but does’t have any wheat in it! How can the crust taste so good?! I’m on a low carb diet so I have suffered through all sorts of weird tasting bread. This one is chewy, with nooks and crannies for sauces and butter. Mine came out purple, but I think it’s a lovely color. I used the bulk psyllium husk powder at my local health food store.
These cake-like donuts have the perfect crumb and light crunch from a dusting of cinnamon “sugar.” Plus, with only 3 net carbs per donut, you can sneak an extra one to dunk in your coffee without the guilt. Swap in coconut milk for almond milk, and make sure you use grass-fed butter and non-GMO erythritol to keep this keto breakfast recipe Bulletproof.
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With all of the nutrition information available today about improving blood sugar, it can be a bit daunting to know which information is correct and which is not. It is so important to look to what science-based evidence and research says about the subject. But even more, we need this science to be translated into easy to understand advice so that we can actually incorporate it into our lives and benefit from it. This is the most important factor.
141. Khailova L. S., Prikhodko E. A., Dedukhova V. I., Mokhova E. N., Popov V. N., Skulachev V. P. Participation of ATP/ADP antiporter in oleate- and oleate hydroperoxide-induced uncoupling suppressed by GDP and carboxyatractylate. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 2006;1757(9-10):1324–1329. doi: 10.1016/j.bbabio.2006.04.024. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

Unlike other low-carb bagels that require conventional cheese to bind them together, this keto bread recipe uses psyllium husk to create the same dense texture. You may want to enjoy these bagels split in half, since each one contains 7 net carbs. Keep every bite more Bulletproof and use grass-fed ghee, swap white vinegar for apple cider vinegar, trade olive oil for avocado oil, and avoid eating psyllium, garlic, or sesame seeds too often.
Hi Maria, I love your bread recipes but can’t get over the one thing, the gritty texture you get in one every couple bites due to the psyllium husk, I have tried different brands and all have it. I haven’t tried Jay Robs yet. But have you tried ground up chia seeds instead by any chance? I read somewhere to just add twice the amount of water. Thanks

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Instead of a complicated keto bread recipe, this breakfast sandwich from Hey Keto Mama gets creative and simple by using spicy pork sausage patties in place of an English muffin or bagel. An egg plus a sriracha and cheese mixture are sandwiched in between, along with any veggies of choice (a slice of tomato and spinach would fit right in). To lighten it up, swap in turkey sausage patties and use just egg whites instead of the whole egg.
Perturbations in bioenergetic homeostasis induce signal transduction that leads to upregulation of mitochondrial capacity and antioxidant defense. Three key enzymes involved in the sensing of these perturbations and the subsequent induction of signal transduction are AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and silent mating type information regulation 2 homologues 1 and 3 (SIRT1 and SIRT3).

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The fact that the diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome vary between ethnic populations is testimony to significant nuances in the manifestation of metabolic syndrome in these groups. The original metabolic syndrome criteria were derived in mostly Caucasian populations, and some have argued for modification of individual criteria for specific ethnic subgroups, as has been done with waist circumference for patients of Asian origin. [39]
Rick, Yes, I would try baking it longer if it’s coming out gummy. If it’s starting to brown too much outside, but the inside doesn’t seem to be fully cooked, you could cover it with foil to prevent over-browning. Another trick I sometimes use is to leave the bread in the oven to cool once it’s done baking (sometimes covering the loaf with foil to prevent over-browning). I hope these tips help!
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