It is known that different dietary components exert some effects on gut microbiome composition, mainly in relation to obesity and inflammatory states. In general, a Mediterranean diet has a positive effect while a high-protein diet seems to have detrimental effects due to putrefaction phenomena (Lopez-Legarrea et al., 2014; Flint et al., 2015). Few data are available at this time about the effects of KD on gut microbiota. For example, a study by Crawford et al. (2009) investigated the regulation of myocardial ketone body metabolism by the gut microbiota and demonstrated that, during fasting, the presence of gut microbiota improved the supply of ketone bodies to the heart where KBs were oxidized. In the absence of a microbiota, low levels of KB was associated with a related increase in glucose utilization, but heart weight was still significantly reduced. The myocardial-mass reduction was completely reversed in germ-free mice feeded with a ketogenic diet. Regarding food control we can hypothesize that the particular metabolic state of ketosis could provide some benefit to weight and food control via synergic actions between butyrate production by gut bacteria and circulating high blood ketones (Sanz et al., 2015).
NRF-1 and NRF-2 are transcription factors that increase expression of TFAM [342], which is required for full initiation of mtDNA transcription [343–345] and hence mitochondrial biogenesis. PGC-1α induces expression of NRF-1 and NRF-2 and facilitates TFAM expression by coactivating NRF-1 [288]. Oxidative stress increases this signaling [346, 347] in conjunction with increased mitochondrial biogenesis [346]. AMPK also contributes to mitochondrial biogenesis, but by inducing mitochondrial fission through phosphorylation of mitochondrial fission factor (MFF) [348], which is in addition to and independent of AMPK's role in activating PGC-1α.
One particular concern to be aware of is the risk for ketoacidosis, which especially applies to diabetics. Ketoacidosis is a dangerous metabolic state in which excessive amounts of ketones are produced. In mostly healthy individuals, ketosis is regulated by insulin, which is the hormone that controls the creation of ketone bodies and regulates the flow of fatty acids into the blood.

People with type 1 diabetes do not produce enough insulin, so their bodies are unable to regulate ketones, which can lead to a dangerous environment. Always consult with your doctor if you have diabetes before changing your diet, and look out for warning signs of ketoacidosis including: excessive thirst, increased urination, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, shortness of breath, weakness, fatigue and confusion.


Hi Melissa, Are you beating the whole eggs? It needs to be egg whites only. Whole eggs will never form peaks. Adding a little cream of tartar helps, as well as making sure you start with a very clean bowl (preferably not plastic if you’re having issues). Having the egg whites at room temperature can be a little easier, too, though I usually don’t need to. Hope this answers your question!


Patterns can be great because they help you figure out what is causing undesirable blood sugar values. A good way to track of it is to keep a journal of all of the food you eat, activities you do and your blood sugar levels for 1 week. During this week, check your sugar before and after you eat, as well as in between meals. Also document any insulin that you give yourself.
Version two was almond flour only. Right away I could tell the recipe would need some modifications. Almond flour doesn’t soak up nearly as much liquid as coconut flour, resulting in a very soupy batter. I added two more tablespoons of almond flour, which was double the amount of coconut flour, and it still wasn’t nearly as thick. After its short stint in the microwave, this bread turned out very moist, soft, and rather flimsy, but was pleasantly bland enough to go with any filling I wanted.
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Choose whole grains such as brown rice and whole-wheat bread instead of white rice and white bread. Whole-grain foods are rich in nutrients compared with more processed foods. Whole grains are higher in fiber, so the body absorbs them more slowly. They do not cause a rapid spike in insulin, which can trigger hunger and cravings. The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines from the USDA recommend that at least half of your grains be whole-grains.
Hi Tammy, I still have to try the muffin tin method to ive you a better response. Why don’t you make the recipe using exact ingredients for one bread multiplied x 9-10 and divide between 12 muffin tin slots? I think this will work better. This way we are not changing the amount of eggs. If you use less eggs, the bread will be more dry, since it is gluten-free.
How many calories should I eat a day? A calorie is an amount of energy that a particular food provides. Consuming more calories than needed will result in weight gain, consuming too few will result in weight loss. How many calories a person should eat each day depends on a variety of factors, such as age, size, sex, activity levels, and general health. Read now
Weigh your ingredients. This will forever be a staple recommendation for any sort of gluten free baking here at gnom-gnom. As aside from leading to less dirty dishes, it will ensure consistent results time and time again. Remember that gluten free (and particularly keto) baking is notoriously finicky, and measuring by cups is anything but accurate. And if you don’t own a baking scale, measure with cups by dropping the ingredients onto them rather than scooping them out (which often leads to overpacking).
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Hi Maya, I’m new to your website and I’m anxious to try out this bread recipe. I’m helping my 27 year old son lose some weight. He’s on some pretty potent medication that has caused him to crave carbs thus putting on quite a bit of weight over the past few years. Since I’m his caregiver and also a Certified Nutritionist, I’m looking for some healthy alternatives to make his transition a bit easier and he loves bread.
Insulin is a hormone that allows glucose to move into tissue cells, where is it is used for energy production. Insulin then prompts the liver to either store the remaining excess blood glucose as glycogen (for short-term energy storage) and/or to use it to produce fatty acids (which then become triglycerides). In people with insulin resistance, additional insulin must be released by the pancreas to overcome the tissue cells' resistance and allow glucose to enter the cells. This resistance and response to resistance can lead to increased insulin and glucose concentrations in the blood. Over time, increased glucose levels can harm blood vessels and organs such as the kidneys. Increased insulin levels can increase sodium retention by the kidneys, resulting in increases in blood pressure (which can lead to hypertension).
Hi everyone,, I’m from Toronto. I want to appreciate the great work of Excel I have been diagnose of herpes infection for a period of 2years, I’ve lose all hope that there is no cure and I have been taken medicine to sustain myself till I got to know about a herbalist called Excel through a friend who he cured of same virus with his boyfriend. I contacted him and he sent me a Herbal Medicine to drink and a tree root (branch) to chew which I took as prescribed for some period of days and I went to the hospital after consuming the Herbal medicine and I was confirmed Herpes Negative after 2 years of being positive, it is indeed a miracle, Dr Excel is a great man, I have heard so much about how he has help lot of people, if you have any issue you can contact him for help. Email: Excelherbalcure@gmail.com or you call him +1 (859) 429 1007

People with type 1 diabetes do not produce enough insulin, so their bodies are unable to regulate ketones, which can lead to a dangerous environment. Always consult with your doctor if you have diabetes before changing your diet, and look out for warning signs of ketoacidosis including: excessive thirst, increased urination, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, shortness of breath, weakness, fatigue and confusion.
I made dressing/stuffing out of this bread! I cut the bread into slices, then cut the slices into cubes. I put them on a metal pan and into my toaster oven on low temperature and let them crisp up. It takes a good while, but they DO get crisp! Then I have my croutons for the dressing. The dressing I made was delicious. I think the next time I make the bread to use for croutons I’m going to add onion powder and sage to the mixture before baking so the croutons will be seasoned some before I begin making the dressing! Love this bread! It is the most like wheat flour bread that I have tried! Thanks Maya!
Maria, thank you for this recipe! Made this yesterday, and was shocked that it really did come together so quickly! I weighed the ingredients out as you recommended, and that worked out really well which I prefer since so many measuring implements can vary from one to the next. I made the almond flour and egg white version, but may eventually try it with the coconut flour. Even my non-paleo, grain-eating husband liked this bread and agreed to put it in his sandwich bread rotation–so that excites me too! My bread did have a slight purplish hue to it (used the Vitacost brand psyllium husk powder), so I just ordered some of the Jay Robb brand psyllium powder so that my husband won’t have an excuse to not eat this when he goes to make a sandwich with it. Thanks again!
I want to thank Dr omohan for the Herbal HIV medicine he gave to me and my daughter, i was suffering from HIV when i gave birth to my daughter and that was how my daughter got the sickness indirect from me, but to God be the glory that i am heal with the herbal medicine that Dr omohan gave to me when i emailed him. i want to use this medium to tell everyone that the solution to our sickness has come,so i will like you to contact this great healer on his email address, dromohanherbalmedicine@gmail.com with him all your pains will be gone,i am really happy today that i and my daughter are cured of HIV, we are now Negative after the use of his Herb medicine, my specialist doctor confirm it. once more i say a big thank to you Dr omohan for healing hands upon my life and my daughter, i say may God continue to bless you abundantly and give you more power to keep helping those that needs your help. email him now he is waiting to receive you. {dromohanherbalmedicine@gmail.com} or What’s App +2348164816038}
The handheld devices that are available for home testing (such as FreeStyle by Abbott, or KetoMojo) require a small droplet of blood (obtained by a finger prick with a lancet) to be placed on a testing strip. A new testing strip must be used each time a reading is taken. The machine delivers a numerical blood BHB measurement in the unit milli molar (mM) after ~8 seconds. 
Hi Cindy, nut flour breads do not rise as much as wheat breads. Also, I used a small bread tin in the post – if you use a regular size bread pan your bread will end up flatter. What you can try next time is to try to keep the dough nice and fluffy, trying to keep as much air inside as possible (for example, not press it into the pan as much as you can). You could also try to whisk the egg whites until they’re stiff and fold them under last, which will make your dough lighter (=more air). I hope this helps
Following a low calorie diet: The exact mechanism whereby caloric restriction can slow or prevent cancer is unknown. It may be linked to: decreased blood glucose (less fuel for cancer cells), raised ketones (antiinflammatory, decreased oxidative stress, decreased ability to use glucose) . Animal models have shown that caloric restriction is closely related to tumour incidence and progression94.

I made this tonight for the first time and I don’t think I ground my psyllium husk enough because the bread had some “crunchy” parts (and not in a good way). Also, I did get a little sinkage, though not too bad. I also inadvertently added baking soda instead of baking powder, so tried to scoop it out and then add the baking powder. I think ultimately, I had too much. Finally, I felt like it needed more salt. It seemed to lack flavor.


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These complications are not caused by a spike in the blood sugar. They are caused by an increased number of high blood sugar events over a period of time. Do not think that one or two high blood sugars are going to cause you to go blind. However, it is important to know what caused those high sugars so that you can prevent it from happening again. Hemoglobin A1C levels are checked to see what the average blood sugar has been over the past 120 days. Your doctor will check this to see if how your blood sugar levels have been trending.

Eating some protein, fiber, and healthy fat with all of your meals can help stabilize blood sugar and manage your appetite, especially when your meal also contains carbohydrate-dense foods like high-sugar fruits (mangos, grapes, cherries) or starchy vegetables (potatoes). Each of these nutrients helps balance blood sugar on its own, but they’re even better together. We love a good kale salad topped with avocado and grass-fed steak.


I contracted hsv from my ex partner we broke up the relationship about four years ago, I has been on treatment for some years, I had lot pains and embarrassment for been Hsv patient last two month i did Hsv research online and found website for natural treatment to get ride of my infection, and i went through the site and recommend me to Dr Ben I contacted Dr Ben through his website and been his patient after one month I got cured. I want everyone living with Hsv to get this treatment and got cured Dr Ben have the cure to every virus. his email;

Hepatitis B-Genital herpes wasn’t easy But as time has passed, I have slowly come to terms with my Hepatitis B-Genital herpes, status and try to tackle it with a positive attitude. In mid-2015 I became quite ill. I developed persistent flu-like symptoms, headaches, a nagging cough and sores that wouldn’t heal. My skin felt as if it was crawling, my legs ached, I felt nauseous and lost weight. Then exhaustion hit. It was an indescribable tiredness and no matter how much I slept I never felt rested. In 2015 I was hospitalized when my CD4 count nosedived to 86 (Hepatitis B, Herpes-negative people have a CD4 count of between 700 and 1,000; a CD4 count of below 200 is considered dangerously low). It was a terrible time. There are lot to say about Dr. Larry but i can only mention few right now, this man is a very great, good and powerful. Dr. Larry, all thanks to him for given me a second chance, if you are out there passing through any problem, you can contact him today on his email via: larryherbalcenter@gmail.com or what-sap him now on +2348163807836), and i know that he will help you also.

Look, the good doctor is right – he only forgot to stress “portion control” which is why many fanatical dieters are so kee-jerk reactive to any discussion – odds are you over ate like a hog before your keto diet, and are weak and insecure in your diet plans. Eat EVERYTHING in small amounts, and you will live long and prosper. The only thing to avoid are processed foods. Cook your meals from scratch using quality ingredients.


Comments are welcomed and encouraged. The purpose of comments on our site is to expand knowledge, engage in thoughtful discussion, and learn more from readers.Criticism and skepticism can be far more useful than praise and unflinching belief.There’s an art and science to critical thinking and how to conduct yourself. There’s a multitude of fallacious appeals we could spell out, but a good rule of thumb is not to attack the person, attack the ideas. Don’t look for the flaws in the person, look for the flaws in the hypothesis. Let’s keep the brawling to movies depicting minor league hockey teams and political “news” shows.Thank you for adding to the discussion.
The key with diabetes is always consistency. A steady intake of the right amount of carbohydrates helps in keeping things under better control and prevents blood sugar spikes. Although many people believe that low-carb is best, that is not true during pregnancy. You need the carbohydrates for the growth of the fetus and to keep your energy level up. Talk to your doctor and nutritionist about what is best for you.
Heat a large non-stick skillet over medium heat.  Mix all of the ingredients for the pancakes into a small bowl.  Spray the skillet with cooking spray and spoon the batter into 4 round pancakes in the skillet.  Let the pancakes cook until bubbles start to form in the batter around the side.  Flip and continue to cook on the other side until the center on the pancake springs back when lightly touched.
Keto Bread Recipe - Four Ways - quick and simple way to make low carb, individual keto bread rolls, in ramekins and just a few healthy ingredients. You can either bake it in the microwave for 90 seconds or in the oven for 10-15 minutes. The the-easiest, the-best kept bread recipe I've ever tried. There are four different options available - you can make cheese keto bread,  broccoli ketogenic bread, bacon and spinach and feta. And of course you can leave it as it is, if you prefer plain kept bread  rolls.
342. Virbasius J. V., Scarpulla R. C. Activation of the human mitochondrial transcription factor A gene by nuclear respiratory factors: a potential regulatory link between nuclear and mitochondrial gene expression in organelle biogenesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 1994;91(4):1309–1313. doi: 10.1073/pnas.91.4.1309. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
This way of eating has made me feel better in so many ways. I just had such a craving For the texture of cake or bread last night that I had a piece of cake and a sandwich wrap! I knew I had to find a way to satisfy that craving and considered eating a sandwich once a week. Now I can do it without too many carbs. Thanks for taking the time to make it come out right. No more carb BINGES for me.
Hi Leo, almond flour bread will always taste of almond flour – there’s no way around it. Since there is no way you can make bread with almond flour using only one egg – it would simply not hold together – it sounds like you’ll have to look for a substitute that is more to your taste. Thank you for taking the time to comment on this recipe, and I hope you find other recipes on my site that are more to your liking 🙂

Thanks for replying. I guess I’ll just try it on both convection and regular and see which works out best! 🙂 I had made the sub roll in a regular oven with good results yet it didn’t turn out as well when baked on convection. That’s why I was wondering about the temperature and whether that was the culprit. Guess there’s only one way to find out. This experimenting can get expensive!


The reason a starving person can live for 40-60 days is precisely because we can turn fat into ketones and convert ketones into substrate for the Krebs Cycle in the mitochondria of our neurons. In fact, the more fat you have on your body, the longer you can survive.  As an example of this, you may want to read this remarkable case report of a 382 day medically supervised fast (with only water and electrolytes)!  If we had to rely on glucose, we’d die in a few days.  If we could only rely on protein, we’d live a few more days but become completely debilitated with muscle wasting.
I don’t usually cook making things from scratch. Glad I did this to replace high carb bread! Made my first bread plain this am in microwave using all the ingredients with 1 sub – olive oil no butter. Worked Great! Toasted it and had it with sliced egg, bacon and mayo instead of butter. Nice and firm and the taste, Fabulous! Very satisfying. Thanks for sharing this and making it so easy for us guys that don’t cook from scratch. Appreciate it much 🙂

Like chili, but with a fried egg on it. This recipe is also made with breakfast sausage patties instead of ground beef or turkey to give it a morning twist (and pack in the protein). Pair this recipe from I Breathe I'm Hungry with your usual favorite chili toppings, like sour cream or chives. (Hint: It's also a perfect recipe to break out for early morning football tailgates.)
β-hydroxybutyrate and, in some cases, acetoacetate contribute to protection against oxidative stress by decreasing production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS), by increasing expression or protein content of antioxidant enzymes through histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition, and by directly scavenging the hydroxyl radical (•OH). Upregulation of antioxidant enzymes through HDAC inhibition includes manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2), catalase, and metallothionein II and is likely mediated by the transcription factor forkhead box O 3a (FOXO3a).
People who have metabolic syndrome or are at risk for it may need to take medicine as treatment. This is especially true if diet and other lifestyle changes have not made a difference. Your doctor may prescribe medicine to help lower blood pressure, improve insulin metabolism, lower LDL cholesterol and raise HDL cholesterol, increase weight loss, or some combination of these.

Hi Maria! Just wanted to say I love this recipe and I found a way to make similar single servings quickly that look like english muffins! I just use a greased ramekin and combine 2 tbsp almond flour, 2 tsp psyllium husk (or 1 tsp powder), pinch of salt and baking powder. Then stir in 2 tbsp + 2 tsp egg whites, 2 tbsp water, 1 tsp olive oil and 1/8 tsp apple cider vinegar. Microwave for 1 min then flip out onto a plate and microwave for another 30 sec. Toast and top with whatever you’d like! 🙂


So, if I’m deprived of a dietary source of glucose, I depend solely on my liver to release glycogen (a process known as hepatic glucose output, or HGO).  How long can HGO supply my brain with sufficient glucose? It depends on a few things that impact both the “source” and the “sink” of glucose.  Other competing sinks for glucose (e.g., activity level, thermogenic needs) and sources (e.g., glycerol and gluconeogenic amino acid availability) can make a difference for a while. But, in a state of starvation we’ve only got about one to three days before we’re in trouble.  If our brain doesn’t get a hold of something else, besides glucose, we will die quite unceremoniously.
This keto bread recipe delivers sweet heat with no corn whatsoever — instead, it uses a blend of coconut flour and sweetener to capture the same taste and texture for about 3 net carbs per serving. Add fresh cranberries and jalapeño slices for a fun twist that pairs well with holiday meals. To keep this recipe more Bulletproof, use grass-fed butter, swap almond milk with full-fat canned coconut milk, and skip the peppers if you have a nightshade sensitivity.
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