Nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (NFE2L2 or NRF2) is a transcription factor that has a prominent role in antioxidant signaling and also influences mitochondrial bioenergetics. The NFE2L2 abbreviation is used in this review to avoid confusion with nuclear respiratory factor 2, which despite being a different protein, has overlapping function with NFE2L2 and shares the same NRF2 abbreviation [349]. Although the mechanisms of NFE2L2 signaling are not fully elucidated [350], oxidative stress has a clear role in interacting with cysteine residues of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), which decreases proteasomal degradation of NFE2L2 and thereby allows entry of NFE2L2 into the nucleus to induce transcription [351–355]. Although the influence of PGC-1α on antioxidant enzyme expression is not dependent on NFE2L2 [76, 356], PGC-1α increases NFE2L2 expression [357], indicating that NFE2L2 activity is influenced by perturbations in both energy and redox homeostasis. NFE2L2 primarily increases expression of antioxidant enzymes, including SOD1 [358], SOD2 [358], catalase [358–361], GPx [360], NQO1 [354, 359–362], GCL [359–361], GST [362], GSR [359–361], and Prx1 [352], but also increases expression of proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics including NRF-1, NRF-2, TFAM, cytochrome c oxidase, and citrate synthase [358].

I love how simple this recipe is and how quickly they bake!  My oven is broken and only goes to 350, so I had to adjust the bake time and think I slightly overbooked them as they were a bit dry.  I followed some of the comments’ recommendations and used half egg whites and half whole eggs (I made 4) and did not find them eggy.  They were light and fluffy, but a bit bland.  I added rosemary to 2 and garlic powder, cheddar cheese and parsley to 2.  I just eyeballed the additions and found them bland.  Next time I will add more herbs/cheese.  I did butter them and found they soaked up the butter – again maybe because they were dry?  I will definitely make these again.  Thanks again for a great quick and easy recipe!

I was a Corpsman (not a corpse-man as some recent somewhat fanatical president would say), and I can tell you many stories of Marines and Sailors who maintained restrictive diets (aka picky eaters). Most obvious was lack of sustaining energy (hypoglycemia) at mile 15 (with 80lbs of gear including a 6.5lb rifle and 200 rnds of ammo, etc.) and depletion of essential vitamins, electrolyte imbalance. They were always the first to collapse and have to hear me scold “see I told you so.” An IV of D5W usually does the trick (D is for dextrose, OMG!)
The SS providing information to the brain mainly send information to the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). These signals are generated in the GIT and abdominal viscera, as well as in the oral cavity and provide information about mechanical and chemical properties of food. The information is transmitted via vagal and spinal nerve to the NTS. The ASs arrive to the median eminence through ARC or through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). All these afferents are integrated in a complex and not fully understood network.

While I do not really miss bread I do occasionally like a grilled cheese. I think this will also work well as a hamburger bun this Summer. It is a bit salty even when using unsalted butter, so I might cut that back a bit. It made a great grilled cheese though. I made mine in a small rectangular pan then cut it in half and grilled it in my cast iron pan with cheddar. Wonderful!
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So, now, I’ve got another loaf in the oven. I doubled the salt, ground up the Psyllium Husk in my Blend Tec (instead of the shoddy thing I used the first time) and reduced the baking soda to 3 tsp. I also (accidentally) ended up with 1 egg yolk in there. Hopefully, that won’t cause too much of an issue. I weighed all my ingredients and I’m hopeful that this batch will give me the results I am looking for. I would *love* a grilled cheese sandwich for a quick-fix dinner with my keto plan. 🙂 Thanks for the recipe. I’ll let you know how this batch turns out.
Populations living further north had much less edible vegetation available for gathering. Thankfully for us, animals that lived in these areas ate the vegetation inedible to us, effectively transforming it into fatty meat we could hunt and enjoy. These people most certainly relied on high levels of fat and protein, thus likely spending most of their time in ketosis.
Hi Jen, It sounds like it needed to bake for longer – this is why it sunk and was still moist. The timing varies by ovens and even different pans. I hope you’ll try it again and just keep it in there for longer. You can cover the top if it starts to brown too much. For the one you made, depending on how moist it was in the middle, you may be able to salvage it somewhat by pan frying the slices.

Some Inuit consume as much as 15–20% of their calories from carbohydrates, largely from the glycogen found in raw meats.[43][44][47][45][50] Furthermore, the blubber, organs, muscle and skin of the diving marine mammals that the Inuit eat have significant glycogen stores that are able to delay postmortem degradation, particularly in cold weather.[51][52][53][54][55][56]
Hi Jodi, I haven’t tried that, but don’t think it would work well for this recipe. First, yeast needs sugar (for it to consume – it’s not typically in the end result), so you’d need to add that. But also, just with how we are making the bread fluffy with beaten egg whites, I don’t think yeast would work. If you want to try adding yeast to a low carb bread, I would do it with this low carb bread recipe instead.
I just tried this recipe in my kitchen. OMG thank you so so much for this wonderful idea! The only thing I think I will try next time is to add just a dash or so of salt to the mug before microwaving (although it already tastes great!). I think it will be fun to experiment with adding some different seasonings or herbs to the batter before baking it, too, just for variety.
For those whose bread keeps sinking or falling, make sure your baking powder is fresh. It does expire and usually a sunken baked good is evidence of it. I think it only lasts about half a year to a year. I made some strawberry muffins with almond flour last year and they were such a pretty pink but all of them caved in in the middle. 🙁 Bad baking powder.
I was looking for a quick way to test a bit of (raw) JALAPENO and came across your 90 SECOND bread. Typically, a mug version isn’t on my radar since I’ve taken up keto loaves of bread, cakes, cookies, etc., quantities of baking. BUT I am totally impressed at the texture, very English muffin, and wonderful flavor! I cut the salt to less than an 1/8th and put just a dab of butter into the mix before whisking it really well. DELICIOUS! Was very surprised to see it is a serving for 2 muffins although hubby and I split it to see about the JALAPENO spiciness (I can safely put more into the loaf I’ll be doing next). Long winded to express my thanks and appreciation for getting bread in a mug done quickly absolutely perfect!!
While there have not been large studies that show the relationship between the ketogenic diet and cancer, we will be publishing a case study about that topic. The author failed to comment that pediatric patients with epilepsy are on the diet for usually about 2 years with no harmful effects. Before the false studies about heart disease and fat, the low carb diet was a respected way to lose weight. Studies into our metabolism show we can use both fat and carbohydrate as fuel. So stepping away from our high carb diet- I am sorry to say that we eat more carbs since the 70s with most of it processed and we now use high fructose corn syrup to sweeten products and we have a wide spread childhood obesity problem. If cholesterol is a concern try plant sterols and stenals to block cholesterol from the receptors in the body. So much more can be said about a keto diet than this article states
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^ Klein MS, Buttchereit N, Miemczyk SP, Immervoll AK, Louis C, Wiedemann S, Junge W, Thaller G, Oefner PJ, Gronwald W (February 2012). "NMR metabolomic analysis of dairy cows reveals milk glycerophosphocholine to phosphocholine ratio as prognostic biomarker for risk of ketosis". Journal of Proteome Research. 11 (2): 1373–81. doi:10.1021/pr201017n. PMID 22098372.
I have been looking for a good keto bread recipe. I have tried a few others with a “meh”. This one is a WOW! Prior to going Keto, I loved to cook and bake, it is my main hobby. But after going Keto, I have had to learn a whole new way of cooking. I followed the recipe to a T knowing how to work my way around the kitchen and the only difference is the fact that mine turned out purple. It is clearly the psyllium. Thank you so much for a wonderful and easy recipe for a great bread!
Keep in mind that the ketogenic diet takes into account net grams of carbohydrates, not simply total grams. Net carbohydrates are the amount of carbohydrates left over after you subtract grams of fiber from total grams of carbohydrates. For example, if vegetables you’re eating have 5 grams of carbohydrates total, but 3 grams come from fiber, the total number of net carbohydrates is only 2 grams, which is the number you add to your daily total.

In both the nutrition literature and public dietary guidelines, nonstarchy vegetables are one of the few dietary components nearly unanimously agreed upon as healthful. Given their health-supporting characteristics and low carbohydrate content, they should be a prominent component of any ketogenic diet. Beyond the primary features of a well-formulated ketogenic diet, such as macronutrient proportions, adequate mineral intake, and appropriate selection of fat sources, which have been discussed more thoroughly elsewhere [34, 35], inclusion of nonstarchy vegetables is an important consideration, given that reports in the literature of adverse effects resulting from ketogenic diets are often associated with extreme implementations that typically lack plant matter. In fact, for this reason, it has recently been recommended to increase the nonstarchy vegetable content of ketogenic diets used to treat epilepsy [38]. Beyond adding variety to the diet, benefits of nonstarchy vegetables that may be particularly relevant to nutritional ketosis include the maintenance of adequate micronutrient status and the presence of prebiotic fiber as substrate for the gut microbiota. In addition to the importance of prebiotic fiber for basic health, the short-chain fatty acids produced by the gut microbiota from this dietary fiber support ketogenesis [39] and metabolic signaling related to mitochondrial function and antioxidant defense [40]. Furthermore, nonstarchy vegetables are a source of the many micronutrients needed to support energy metabolism. As such, there is more to a ketogenic diet than simply restricting carbohydrate. Selection of a variety of nutrient-dense foods is therefore an important component of nutritional ketosis that should be given consideration in any clinical or academic implementation.
The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) plays a central role in the control of energy balance. Many molecules produced by the GIT exert hunger or satiety effects on the brain. Ghrelin is a peptide produced mainly by the stomach's oxyntic cells that stimulates ghrelin secretion in the hypophysis and has some neuroendocrine activities. However, its orexigenic properties are the most relevant to us and ghrelin is the only known peripheral orexigenic hormone (Date, 2012). Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a peptide produced mainly in the duodenum and jejunum that acts on the vagus nerve and directly on the hypothalamic nuclei. CCK is an anorexigenic factor and it reduces food intake, meal size and duration (Murphy et al., 2006). Three other related hormones are pancreatic polypeptide (PP), amylin, and peptide YY (PYY). PP is a peptide produced by the endocrine pancreas in relation to the caloric content of meals, and it reduces food intake both in rodents and humans. Amylin is a peptide co-secreted with insulin; its main effect on food control is a reduction of meal sizes and food intake (Murphy et al., 2006). Peptide YY (PYY) is produced in the gut and is similar to PP. PYY is stored in intestinal cells and released into the circulation as PYY3−36, a truncated form of PYY. The release of PYY3−36 is dependent on a meal's caloric and fat content (Veldhorst et al., 2008). The glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is produced by the cleavage of pro-glucagon gene in the intestine. It acts as incretin at a pancreatic level, promoting insulin secretion and as neuro hormone on hypothalamic nuclei, inducing satiety (Valassi et al., 2008).

As previously mentioned, numerous studies have demonstrated a profound increase in fat oxidation in response to ketogenic and low-carbohydrate diets. Some studies have even shown an increase in O2 consumption [148, 155–158]. However, fats contain fewer oxygen atoms per carbon than carbohydrates, thereby necessitating greater O2 intake to produce the same amount of energy [159]. Furthermore, since β-oxidation and ketolysis produce a greater proportion of FADH2 to NADH, the resulting decrease in passage of electrons through complex I decreases potential for ATP production per unit of O2 consumption [160]. Increased O2 consumption in response to a ketogenic diet may therefore merely be an effect of the differences in the metabolism and molecular structures of fat and carbohydrate rather than a true indication of increased capacity for oxidative phosphorylation. However, in rat hearts perfused with glucose, the addition of ketones has decreased O2 consumption [161]. This discrepancy may be related to variations in mitochondrial uncoupling. Either way, several studies have shown ketogenic diets to increase mitochondrial content, and numerous studies have shown these diets to increase expression, content, or activity of mitochondrial proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation and fat oxidation. Compared to O2 consumption alone, these findings provide more conclusive support for an increase in oxidative capacity in response to nutritional ketosis.


Keto is not hard to follow at all. See, this is why I took my diet and nutrition into my own hands. I have PCOS and the ketogenic diet has worked wonders for me. I’m finally pregnant at the age of 32 and after 11 years of marriage because the ketogenic diet made me lose over 100 lbs and brought my insulin resistance under control. I feel better than I’ve ever felt. Sometimes doctors don’t seem to know as much as they should, or as much as they assume they do, and that’s pretty disturbing. Just like they’re still using the old school and very inaccurate BMI charts that are just pure bs. I’ll just take care of myself outside of certain situations involving illness or injury. I’m doing great on my own.
Like you say on your show, I am a foodie and hate it when recipes on websites turn out tasting bleh. This bread has a great texture. After making it a few times plain now, I added some sesame seeds to the batter and that turned out great too. I make an open faced breakfast sandwich with a slice of this almond flour bread, plenty of cream cheese and scrambled eggs. Paired with coffee. So tasty, that I can’t tell it isn’t a regular scrumptious egg sandwich.
Interestingly, one study showed that weightlifters on a ketogenic diet lost lean body mass, but this did not lead to a decrease in performance [16]. This suggests that the measured reduction of lean body mass was not due to a loss in actual muscle tissue, but probably due to a loss of water and glycogen content in the muscles. Muscles can be made to look bigger or achieve ‘the pump’ by eating lots of carbs which fills them with water and glycogen.

It has recently been proposed that the ARC is required for the coordination of homeostatic circadian systems including temperature and activity. Authors tested this hypothesis by injecting saporin toxin conjugated to leptin into the ARC of rats. Wiater et al. showed that the leptin-sensitive network is required for entrainment of activity by photic cues and entrainment of temperature by food but is not required for entrainment of activity by food or temperature by photic cues (Wiater et al., 2013).


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Angie, I’m happy to hear you and your hubby enjoyed the taste, but sorry to hear the bread was flat! The egg whites don’t need to be whipped for this recipe, but I’ll try to help you troubleshoot…first I would check to make sure that your baking powder is fresh. Also, did you use the full cup of egg whites? Did you make any ingredient substitutions or adjustments? Did you use a 9 by 5-inch loaf pan? Did you cook it at 350F and is your oven properly calibrated? Did you bake it for the amount of time the recipe calls for? I hope this helps!
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