For those, like myself, wanting a low-carb real bread I would recommend a proper low-carb yeast bread recipe with vital wheat gluten (the vast majority of people have zero gluten sensitivity, so the gluten-free fad is at best a waste and at worst a scam). Such breads have approx 1.5-2 grams more net carbs per 40g slice (5-6 grams total net carbs) than this recipe and I think it’s worth it.
This is brilliant. I made it today not in a mug but a cereal bowl. So it was bigger. I could only eat half. Rather filling. I layered it with cream cheese and a thin slice of smoked ham for mid afternoon snack. Slight bitter after taste which i think is from the baking powder. I am going to make it again with herbs like some others have suggested. Thanks HBK😚
Impaired mitochondrial function often results in excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is involved in the etiology of many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. Moderate levels of mitochondrial ROS, however, can protect against chronic disease by inducing upregulation of mitochondrial capacity and endogenous antioxidant defense. This phenomenon, referred to as mitohormesis, is induced through increased reliance on mitochondrial respiration, which can occur through diet or exercise. Nutritional ketosis is a safe and physiological metabolic state induced through a ketogenic diet low in carbohydrate and moderate in protein. Such a diet increases reliance on mitochondrial respiration and may, therefore, induce mitohormesis. Furthermore, the ketone β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), which is elevated during nutritional ketosis to levels no greater than those resulting from fasting, acts as a signaling molecule in addition to its traditionally known role as an energy substrate. BHB signaling induces adaptations similar to mitohormesis, thereby expanding the potential benefit of nutritional ketosis beyond carbohydrate restriction. This review describes the evidence supporting enhancement of mitochondrial function and endogenous antioxidant defense in response to nutritional ketosis, as well as the potential mechanisms leading to these adaptations.
Bailey, We’re so happy to hear you enjoyed this recipe! Regarding having bread fall, did you cook it for the full amount of time the recipe calls for, and did you cover the top with foil for the last 15 minutes? If so, there might be an issue with your oven’s calibration (you can get an inexpensive oven thermometer to check this). Another tip is to let your eggs come to room temperature first. Another factor is the altitude at which you’re baking; if you’re at high altitude, you might need to slightly adjust the oven temperature and bake time. The other thing to remember is that there will usually be a little bit of fall to most keto breads (in fact, every keto bread we’ve ever made) because keto flours lack gluten and are naturally quite dense; however, you can see in the photos, we still got a good rise on this loaf. I hope these tips help!

141. Khailova L. S., Prikhodko E. A., Dedukhova V. I., Mokhova E. N., Popov V. N., Skulachev V. P. Participation of ATP/ADP antiporter in oleate- and oleate hydroperoxide-induced uncoupling suppressed by GDP and carboxyatractylate. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 2006;1757(9-10):1324–1329. doi: 10.1016/j.bbabio.2006.04.024. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
In low carb and keto baking, we’re concerned with two things: 1) keeping carbs low, and 2) still achieving a baked good that has great flavor and texture (because if we can’t gag it down there’s just no point, right? Lol). Low carb bread recipes are usually gluten free and grain free (although we’ve seen a couple that use oat fiber), but then the challenge is to get creative to get the right combination of ingredients to yield something that rises properly and tastes good.
The root cause of most cases of metabolic syndrome can be traced back to poor eating habits and a sedentary lifestyle. In some cases, a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome has also been assigned to those already diagnosed with hypertension or with poorly controlled diabetes. There also seems to be an association with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovarian disease, and some cancers. A few cases are thought to be linked to genetic factors.
It is interesting to note that the KB are capable of producing more energy than glucose due to the changes in mitochondrial ATP production induced by KB (Kashiwaya et al., 1994; Sato et al., 1995; Veech, 2004). During fasting or KD glycaemia, though reduced, remains within physiological levels (Seyfried and Mukherjee, 2005; Paoli et al., 2011). This euglycemic response to extreme conditions comes from two main sources: glucogenic amino acids and glycerol liberated via lysis from triglycerides (Vazquez and Kazi, 1994; Veldhorst et al., 2009). Glucogenic amino acids (neoglucogenesis from amino acids) are more important during the earlier phases of KD, while the glycerol becomes fundamental as the days go by. Thus, the glucose derived from glycerol (released from triglyceride hydrolysis) rises from 16% during a KD to 60% after a few days of complete fasting (Vazquez and Kazi, 1994). According to Bortz (1972) 38% of the new glucose formed from protein and glycerol is derived from glycerol in the lean while 79% in the obese (Bortz et al., 1972). It is important to note that during physiological ketosis (fast or very low calorie ketogenic diets) ketonemia reaches maximum levels of 7–8 mmol/L with no change in blood pH, while in uncontrolled diabetic ketoacidosis blood concentration of KBs can exceed 20 mmol/L with a consequent lowering of blood pH (Robinson and Williamson, 1980; Cahill, 2006) (Table ​(Table11).
I made it tonight and use a mini loaf pan. It came out delicious. I used the link to adjust the recipe measurements using the one third column. I used 2 egg whites. The slices will be small but it was delicious with melted butter. Keto bread recipes and I have tried quite a few have not turned out well for me. I do not like to waste expensive ingredients that is why I will usually do a small amount first. This recipe has been the exception. It is good simple and delicious. I will make it again using the recipe as written. Note: I whipped the egg whites for 10 minutes to get the right consistency. I hope this helps and thank You Maya for finally for me making a bread that tastes great and is easy to make.
The discovery of many appetite-related hormones provided molecular basis for appetite control, decreasing the relevance of the metabolites hypothesis (Karatsoreos et al., 2013). Recently, Sumithran et al. demonstrated that there is a long-term persistence of changes in some peripheral hormones involved in food control (Sumithran et al., 2011). In this study, they found a significant difference in mean levels of many food intake-related hormones 1 year after the cessation of weight loss via the hypocaloric diet. There was a long lasting decrease of anorexigenic compounds: leptin, PYY, cholecystokinin, insulin, and pancreatic peptide and an increase of the orexigenic molecule ghrelin. Moreover, they found that hunger remained elevated 1 year after diet cessation. In a successive study the same group investigated hunger-related hormones after 8 weeks of KD, demonstrating that during ketosis the increase of ghrelin (a strong stimulator of appetite) was suppressed (Sumithran et al., 2013). These results are consistent with those of Ratliff et al (Ratliff et al., 2009), who found no significant change in fasting plasma ghrelin after 12 weeks of VLCD.
Although resting skeletal muscle is less metabolically active than the heart, kidneys, brain, or liver, it rivals even the brain in being the body's most metabolically demanding tissue when considered relative to total tissue mass [369]. Physical activity can greatly increase this demand, making exercise a practical and powerful way to induce bioenergetic adaptations.

Just made this and had the same rubbery/purple loaf issues, so I’ll probably switch to a different psyllium if I make it again. So my question is this… I ate a few slices (3) of the bread (regardless of the flaws) and found it gave me some stomach discomfort… Could I have a sensitivity to the psyllium, or do you think getting a better quality psyllium would change my reaction?
In order to obtain the most comparable measures, it is useful to measure blood ketones at the same time each day. Measuring immediately on waking means that there are fewer potential variables that could alter the measurement, such as exercise, or different food intake. However, it can also be useful to check ketone levels around 60-90 minutes after an intervention such after eating a fat rich meal or consuming exogenous ketones.      
Embarrassing admission: I remember exactly where I was sitting in a clinic at Johns Hopkins in 2002 explaining to (admonishing, really) a patient who was on the Atkins diet how harmful it was because of DKA.  I am so embarrassed by my complete stupidity and utter failure to pick up a single scientific article to fact check this dogma I was spewing to this poor patient. If you’re reading this, sir, please forgive me. You deserved a smarter doctor.
Luckily, DKA has some pretty glaring signs, so someone experiencing it can get help ASAP—symptoms include rapid and heavy breathing, having to pee a lot, and thirst that can’t be quenched, says Klett. As things progress, they’ll also “get confused, become delirious, and eventually have cardiovascular collapse because the blood pH gets so low,” and their organs will stop functioning properly. So again, treatment is necessary.
The beautiful part of good science is its self-correcting nature. The ugly part is this self-correcting nature often moves at a glacial pace—and it’s not linear. We often view history century-by-century and see what amounts to continual progress in medicine. But we live our lives—and consume information—day-by-day, exposed to the peaks and valleys of medical wisdom.

Apart from administering insulin, the fastest way to lower your blood glucose is to engage in physical activity. Exercise results in an increased sensitivity to insulin. It causes your muscle cells to take up more glucose, leaving less of it to circulate in your bloodstream during and after the physical activity (which means a lower blood glucose when you test). Frequent, regular exercise is very important to good blood glucose control no matter what type of diabetes you have. Research has shown that it is vital in warding off long-term complications like neuropathy, retinopathy, and heart and kidney diseases. Don't forget to check with a doctor, though, before making any major changes to your exercise routine. And, if you have type 1 diabetes and your glucose is 250 mg/dl or higher, check for urine ketones. You should not exercise if ketones are present.
Because metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance are closely tied, many healthcare providers believe that insulin resistance may be a cause of metabolic syndrome. But they have not found a direct link between the two conditions. Others believe that hormone changes caused by chronic stress lead to abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, and higher blood lipids (triglycerides and cholesterol).
The graph below, also from the Cahill and Veech paper, shows the blood chemistry of a person starving for 40 days.  Within about 3 days, a starving person’s level of glucose stops falling.  Within about 10 days they reach a steady-state equilibrium with B-OHB levels exceeding glucose levels and offsetting most of the brain’s need for glucose. In fact, the late George Cahill did an experiment many years ago (probably would never get IRB approval to do such an experiment today) to demonstrate how ketones can offset glucose in the brain. Subjects with very high levels of B-OHB (about 5-7 mM) were injected with insulin until glucose levels reached 1 mM (about 19 mg/dL)!  A normal person would fall into a coma at glucose levels below about 40 mg/dL and die by the time blood glucose reached 1 mM.  These subjects were completely asymptomatic and 100% neurologically functional.

Ketone ester drinks can improve performance30. When taken with pre-exercise carbohydrates, a BHB-butanediol (BHB-BD) ketone ester allowed cyclists to ride 2-3% further in a 30 minute time trial than with carbohydrate alone. This is likely to be a combination effect of: Ketones themselves being a highly efficient fuel and improving muscle efficiency. Fuel availability is a key determinant of performance. By increasing the availability of an alternative fuel (ketones) during exercise this spares muscle carbohydrate stores for later in the exercise bout meaning more is available for the end of the test. 
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Hi Diane, the bread should not be moist in the middle now should it fall apart. I don’t think substituting the butter for coconut oil could have been the reason for the problem – they have similar consistencies and can normally be subbed for one another without problem. The only thing I can think of is that you may need to bake it for longer. Ovens do vary and maybe it was the case that it was just not done. I hope this helps 🙂

317. Jornayvaz F. R., Jurczak M. J., Lee H. Y., et al. A high-fat, ketogenic diet causes hepatic insulin resistance in mice, despite increasing energy expenditure and preventing weight gain. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2010;299(5):E808–E815. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00361.2010. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

More recently a community of researchers and athletes have emerged who feel that following a ketogenic diet offers a performance advantage, especially to endurance sports where athletes are more likely to run out of stored carbohydrate during the event. However the evidence remains inconclusive and research is ongoing to provide a definitive answer to as to if a ketogenic diet offers a performance advantage.    
Recent studies indicate that mood disorders such as depression and anxiety can be linked to a range of physical changes in the brain, such as inflammation or change in gene expression71. Early results from animal studies have shown that ketosis could improve mood disorders, although the mechanism is still unclear. Rats fed exogenous ketones for several weeks showed reduced anxiety behaviours72. Similarly, endogenous and exogenous BHB alleviated depressive behaviour in mice subjected to stress73. This was found to be linked to altered epigenetic markers (modifications to DNA that affect the degree of gene expression) and an increased amount of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain. At this time, there are no trials investigating the effects of ketosis in human patients with mood disorders. 

^ Feinman, R. D; Pogozelski, W. K; Astrup, A; Bernstein, R. K; Fine, E. J; Westman, E. C; Accurso, A; Frassetto, L; Gower, B. A; McFarlane, S. I; Nielsen, J. V; Krarup, T; Saslow, L; Roth, K. S; Vernon, M. C; Volek, J. S; Wilshire, G. B; Dahlqvist, A; Sundberg, R; Childers, A; Morrison, K; Manninen, A. H; Dashti, H. M; Wood, R. J; Wortman, J; Worm, N (2015). "Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management: Critical review and evidence base". Nutrition. 31 (1): 1–13. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2014.06.011. PMID 25287761.

Probiotics are an obvious supplement for digestive health, but they may play an important role in lowering blood sugar, too. One small study found that people who were following a heart-health DASH diet and also consumed probiotics experienced a decrease in fasting blood sugar and hemoglobin A1C levels (a marker for testing long-term blood sugar levels). Start by adding healthy, probiotic-rich foods to your diet such as kefir, plain yogurt, sauerkraut, kimchi, or even a little low-sugar kombucha. And, to help probiotic bacteria to thrive, eat plenty of prebiotic foods such as fiber-rich leafy greens and vegetables.
As will be discussed in the following sections, many of the signaling proteins involved in regulating antioxidant defense also regulate oxidative phosphorylation and fat oxidation. There is abundant evidence (Table 1) showing ketogenic and low-carbohydrate diets to increase expression, content, or activity of many targets of these signaling proteins, further indicating increased oxidative capacity. It is particularly striking that ketogenic or low-carbohydrate diets upregulate expression of proteins associated with each of the five mtETC complexes.
Long-term compliance is low and can be a big issue with a ketogenic diet, but this is the case with any lifestyle change.  Even though the ketogenic diet is significantly superior in the induction of weight loss in otherwise healthy patients with obesity and the induced weight loss is rapid, intense, and sustained until at least 2 year, the understanding of the clinical impacts, safety, tolerability, efficacy, duration of treatment, and prognosis after discontinuation of the diet is challenging and requires further studies to understand the disease-specific mechanisms.
I halved this recipe and added 1 tsp cocoa powder and 1 tsp ajwain seeds (I was out of caraway) to the dry ingredients, and 1 tsp black strap molasses to the hot water, and baked for 1 hr (cooled slowly with the oven door ajar and allowed to cool completely before removing from the pan. It turned out wonderfully – very much like a dark european style bread.
Ketogenic diets (around 50 grams of carbs per day) are extremely effective for getting lean because you reset the body’s enzymatic machinery to use fat as its primary fuel source in the absence of carbs. I see three problems with your diet that are certainly causing your fat-loss plateau—too much protein, not enough good fat, and residual carbohydrates.
Some research suggests that ketogenic diets might help lower your risk of heart disease. Other studies show specific very-low-carb diets help people with metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Researchers are also studying the effects of these diets on acne, cancer, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and nervous system diseases like Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Lou Gehrig's disease.
In addition to the seaweed and glycogen carbohydrates mentioned above, the Inuit can access many plant sources. The stomach contents of caribou contain a large quantity of partially digested lichens and plants, which the Inuit once considered a delicacy. They also harvested reindeer moss and other lichens directly. The extended daylight of the arctic summer led to a profusion of plant life, and they harvested plant parts including berries, roots and stems, as well as mushrooms. They preserved some gathered plant life to eat during winter, often by dipping it in seal fat.[71]
Hello Maria, firstborn thank you so much for this recipe. Last time I mande it was really good, I was so happy to eat bread again! But, I felt that the bread was a little on the goomy side, I’m not sure if this is the way it is suppose to be. Is there anything I can do about it? Don’t get me wrong, it did taste good, but as I was reading through the coments it seemed like it was not supposed to be goomy. I live in China and it’s really hard to find Psyllium husk here, so I don’t have many brand options.
No single food, supplement, or workout session is going to be the magic bullet. To lower blood sugar (and keep it balanced for good), start eating a minimally processed diet that contains fiber, protein, healthy fats, and high quality carbohydrates; get regular exercise; make sure you’re hydrated and well rested; play around with meal composition; and experiment with research-backed superfoods and supplements.
The key sign of metabolic syndrome is central obesity, also known as visceral, male-pattern or apple-shaped adiposity. It is characterized by adipose tissue accumulation predominantly around the waist and trunk.[5] Other signs of metabolic syndrome include high blood pressure, decreased fasting serum HDL cholesterol, elevated fasting serum triglyceride level, impaired fasting glucose, insulin resistance, or prediabetes. Associated conditions include hyperuricemia; fatty liver (especially in concurrent obesity) progressing to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; polycystic ovarian syndrome in women and erectile dysfunction in men; and acanthosis nigricans.
Because the population of the U.S. is aging, and because metabolic syndrome is more likely the older you are, the American Heart Association (AHA) has estimated that metabolic syndrome soon will become the main risk factor for cardiovascular disease, ahead of cigarette smoking. Experts also think that increasing rates of obesity are related to the increasing rates of metabolic syndrome.

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As the rate of oxidative phosphorylation approaches the capacity of the mtETC, Δp will increase and facilitate mtROS production [53]. Higher oxidative capacity should therefore decrease the potential for mtROS production and subsequent oxidative damage. Furthermore, greater oxidative capacity may compensate for the resulting decrease in efficiency of ATP production associated with increased mitochondrial uncoupling. Since oxidative phosphorylation occurs exclusively in mitochondria, mitochondrial density is a key determinant of oxidative capacity [154].

Hi Maya, I have made this twice and the first was actually closer than the second! The second one was raised really well when I put the foil on for the last 10-15 mins of cook time and when I took it out 12 mins later it had completely fallen! Now it is almost wet in the center though there are air pockets in it, it’s very odd. The first loaf was pretty flat the whole time and I am pretty sure that was because I didn’t have my egg whites whipped enough but they were spot on for the second loaf. I am also thinking it might be my baking powder after reading some of the comments. I plan to try again and just use a baking soda/cream of tartar mix rather than the baking powder. Any other suggestions? Anyone? LOL!

^ Jump up to: a b Gatta-Cherifi, Blandine; Cota, Daniela (2015). "Endocannabinoids and Metabolic Disorders". Endocannabinoids. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. 231. pp. 367–91. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-20825-1_13. ISBN 978-3-319-20824-4. PMID 26408168. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is known to exert regulatory control on essentially every aspect related to the search for, and the intake, metabolism and storage of calories, and consequently it represents a potential pharmacotherapeutic target for obesity, diabetes and eating disorders. ... recent research in animals and humans has provided new knowledge on the mechanisms of actions of the ECS in the regulation of eating behavior, energy balance, and metabolism. In this review, we discuss these recent advances and how they may allow targeting the ECS in a more specific and selective manner for the future development of therapies against obesity, metabolic syndrome, and eating disorders.
Concussion (a mild form of TBI), is defined as a short term impairment of brain function caused by impact. Symptoms include dizziness, confusion and headache. When the brain suffers a concussive impact this triggers an acute cascade of cellular events that can eventually cause chronic problems. Firstly, immediately after impact there are changes to the concentrations of ions and neurotransmitters in and outside of the neurones. For example, the cells release potassium and glutamate (excitatory neurotransmitter); this can cause neuronal damage instantly64. The disruption to the equilibrium of substances within the brain must be corrected, which requires the action of the ATP dependant ion pumps in the cell membranes. In order to produce enough ATP the brain has a transient period of high glucose metabolism (within 30 minutes of impact), which is followed by a period of glucose metabolic depression that can last anywhere from 5 days to several months, depending on severity65. In this time the brain is starved of energy when it is unable to metabolise glucose, which can cause long term damage. Severe or repeated impacts can lead to development of conditions such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). 
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Thanks for replying. I guess I’ll just try it on both convection and regular and see which works out best! 🙂 I had made the sub roll in a regular oven with good results yet it didn’t turn out as well when baked on convection. That’s why I was wondering about the temperature and whether that was the culprit. Guess there’s only one way to find out. This experimenting can get expensive!
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The BBB, largely formed by the brain capillary endothelial cells, provides a protective barrier between the systemic blood and the extracellular environment of the CNS. Passage of FAs from the blood to the brain may occur either by diffusion or by proteins that facilitate their transport. Studies indicate that FATP-1 and FATP-4 are the predominant FA transport proteins expressed in the BBB based on human and mouse expression studies (Mitchell et al., 2011).
Therefore the combustion enthalpy (∆H) of each fuel is an important factor in the energy it can provide to the cell. When expressed as the energy per 2 carbons in the molecule, ketones (BHB) have a higher combustion enthalpy (∆H) than pyruvate, lactate and glucose (see table). This means that the amount of energy that could possibly be transferred to ATP is higher than for those other substrates:
For those with gummy results, don’t throw away the bread. I found toasting it in oven on 425 works better than toaster and makes the bread edible if your loaf did come out gummy. Also, by accident, I left a piece in oven and preheated oven later for something else I was making and found my extremely crispy toasted bread which made a GREAT baguette! Now I’m making a bunch like this to eat with different creamed cheese spreads! The only real success I’ve had making this bread is in sub or roll form, otherwise, I too experienced some dense/gummy results, moreso, using the coconut flour recipe though.
The secret step in this recipe that takes this carb-free bread from good to great is the separation of the eggs. You’re going to want to separate the yolks and the whites. The reason for this is that we’re going to whip the egg whites until they are fluffy. We’re looking for soft peaks. This will add some volume to the otherwise dense keto bread. Beating the egg whites is the answer to the denseness that comes with making an almond flour bread. I’ve made countless baked goods using almond flour and the main problem I’ve encountered is how dense the finished product is. The fluffy egg whites in unison with the high dosage of baking powder do a good job of getting this loaf nice and fluffy and adding some air pockets into the loaf. This makes for a better tasting bread.