In a subsequent series of experiments, glucose metabolism in C. elegans was inhibited by knockdown of the insulin receptor, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor, and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) [73]. Consistent with the previous study [72], inhibition of glucose metabolism increased mitochondrial respiration concomitant with ROS-dependent increases in lifespan, stress resistance, and antioxidant enzyme activity. However, in this case, detection of ROS was mitochondria-specific, and repeated measures allowed for changes in antioxidant enzyme activities to be evaluated more closely in relation to the timing of changes in mtROS. Compared to controls, inhibition of glucose metabolism resulted in higher mitochondrial O2 consumption at 12 h, higher mtROS production at 24 h, and higher activities of SOD and catalase at 48 h, suggesting a dependence of antioxidant activity on mtROS and a dependence of mtROS on mitochondrial respiration. The most striking result is the lower mtROS at 120 h, indicating that the initial increase in mtROS and subsequent increase in antioxidant enzyme activity ultimately lowered net mtROS production to a level lower than controls, which is the proposed explanation for the more than twofold increase in lifespan. As with the previous study, this demonstration of mitohormesis is further supported by the changes in ROS production, antioxidant enzyme activity, and lifespan having been prevented with antioxidant treatment.
Yes, you read that right. Meat. Bagel. It's basically ground pork cooked into the shape of a bagel (or a donut, however you'd like to think of it). After it's cooked, cut it in half and fill it with lettuce, tomato, avocado, and onions for one hell of a breakfast sandwich. They also freeze up nicely. Meat lovers, you've got Ditch The Wheat to thank for this creation.
Before we begin, a disclaimer in order: If you want to actually understand this topic, you must invest the time and mental energy to do so.  You really have to get into the details.  Obviously, I love the details and probably read 5 or 6 scientific papers every week on this topic (and others).  I don’t expect the casual reader to want to do this, and I view it as my role to synthesize this information and present it to you. But this is not a bumper-sticker issue.  I know it’s trendy to make blanket statements – ketosis is “unnatural,” for example, or ketosis is “superior” – but such statements mean nothing if you don’t understand the biochemistry and evolution of our species.  So, let’s agree to let the unsubstantiated statements and bumper stickers reside in the world of political debates and opinion-based discussions.  For this reason, I’ve deliberately broken this post down and only included this content (i.e., background) for Part I.

One of the hardest things to do when I travel is to find something to take for lunch OTHER than salads–that gets old fast! This will be a HUGE help so that I can add “bread” back into my lunch menus! Thank you VERY much! So fast, so easy, and VERY usable for those of us stuck in hotel rooms with limited options for eating in. It really does have the texture of whole-grain type of bread!! You’re a life saver! 😀
Blood pressure goals are generally set lower than 130/80. Some blood pressure medications offer more benefits than simply lowering blood pressure. For example, a class of blood pressure drugs called ACE inhibitors has been found to also reduce the levels of insulin resistance and actually deter the development of type 2 diabetes. This is an important consideration when discussing the choice blood pressure drugs in the metabolic syndrome.

I was well aware of the dearth of mainstream knowledge of NK, and particularly the conflation of NK with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a pathologic state that results from the complete or near absence of insulin, which is what prompted my writing and desire to share my journey. And I was once in the wanker category of folks who spoke with “authority” about ketosis, despite knowing somewhere between zero and nothing on the topic. I remember exactly where I was sitting in a clinic at Johns Hopkins in 2002 during my residency explaining to (admonishing, really) a patient who was on the Atkins diet how harmful it was because of DKA. Not only that, the ketogenic diet could be seen as the antithesis of a “healthy” diet by conventional standards. I could see how this was a difficult proposition for many to acknowledge.


For a given quantity of fuel, the maximum amount of work that can be obtained from that fuel in a closed system is called ‘the Gibbs free energy’ (G). This takes into account the inherent ‘heat’ (combustion enthalpy (H)) and a property called entropy (a measure of tendency towards ‘disorder’ (S). The change in Gibbs free energy (∆G) is related to the change in combustion enthalpy (∆H), change in entropy (∆S) and the temperature (T):
These fluffy, colorful pancakes from The Big Man’s World satisfy any cravings for a decadent, comfort food breakfast without totally sabotaging ketosis. Made with almond flour and coconut flour instead of the conventional stuff, these pillowy cakes are much higher in fats, protein, and fiber than your average stack—and at 2.1 grams of net carbs per serving, much lower in carbs. Did we mention they’re also vegan and take just 10 minutes to whip up?
Why is the keto diet good for you? A keto diet is one that prioritizes fats and proteins over carbohydrates. It can help reduce body weight, acne, and the risk of cancer. Find out about the mechanisms through which it achieves these benefits and the research that supports it. This MNT Knowledge Center article also discusses the risks of the diet. Read now
You’ll recall, from the point I made above, that my brain requires about 400 to 500 kcal of glucose per day (100 to 120 gm).  You’ll also recall (from the video, above) that I can store about 100 to 120 gm of glucose in my liver.  While I can store much more in my muscles, (on the order of about 300 to 350 gm), because muscles lack the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase, glucose stored in muscle as glycogen is unable to re-enter the bloodstream and is meant for the muscle and the muscle alone to use.  In other words, muscle glycogen is a stranded asset of glucose in the body to be used only by the muscle.

For those whose bread keeps sinking or falling, make sure your baking powder is fresh. It does expire and usually a sunken baked good is evidence of it. I think it only lasts about half a year to a year. I made some strawberry muffins with almond flour last year and they were such a pretty pink but all of them caved in in the middle. 🙁 Bad baking powder.


Can you put any yeast in the mixture? And if you did, would it help it rise more in addition to tasing more “yeasty”? I have been making (with great results) a browner, wheat colored bread from a recipe called Diedre’s For Real Low Carb Bread. It uses yeast and only has one rise after kneading with my dough hook attachment on my mixer. I would like to try some white bread.
In our keto bread recipe, we use a combination of coconut and almond flours so neither is overpowering. We also use a touch of psyllium husk powder to help achieve the right texture. A little bit of beef gelatin acts as a binder and adds bread-like “chew” to the final result. Our recipe only contains egg whites, which add structure and act as a natural leavening agent, but without the eggy flavor that the yolks would add.
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