Scheme of orexigenic and anorexigenic effects of ketosis. The picture is highly schematic. For more details please see the text. AMPK, AMP-activated protein kinase; CCK, cholecystokinin; GABA, gamma-aminobutyric acid; BHB, β-hydroxybutyric acid; FFA, free fatty acids; ROS, reactive oxygen species; NPY, neuropeptide Y; AgRP, agouti gene-related protein.

Many neurological conditions share a common feature of impaired brain energy metabolism. It isn’t always clear if this impairment is the cause or the effect of the disease, but nonetheless, interventions that even partially restore or improve brain energy metabolism could help to prevent, slow or even reverse some conditions of the brain. Because ketones can: 1) get into the brain; 2) undergo metabolism by a distinct pathway that bypasses glucose metabolism, providing ketones by either following a ketogenic diet or by taking exogenous ketones could impact the natural course of some neurological conditions. 
A study on hippocampal mitochondrial function in rats more directly supports the induction of mitohormesis by a ketogenic diet. After the first day of the diet (Bio-Serv F3666), H2O2 production by isolated mitochondria was increased [96]. After the third day, mitochondrial levels of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and hippocampal levels of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) were also increased, further indicating an increase in oxidative stress. However, at completion of the first week, upregulation of antioxidant signaling occurred, indicated by increased nuclear content and transcriptional activity of nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (NFE2L2), which persisted through the remainder of the study. By the third week, mitochondrial H2O2 production decreased to below baseline [96]. In the liver, content of reduced acetyl CoA, which is indicative of mitochondrial redox status, decreased after three days of the ketogenic diet, but increased relative to the control diet after three weeks, indicating an initial increase in oxidative stress followed by a decrease [96]. This was in conjunction with changes in NFE2L2 nuclear content and transcriptional activity similar to those observed in the hippocampus. As with the previously described C. elegans experiments, the time course of these observations is a strong indication of mitohormesis, and the similarity in results between the liver and hippocampus suggests that a ketogenic diet can induce mitohormesis in a variety of tissues.
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Physical inactivity is a predictor of CVD events and related mortality. Many components of metabolic syndrome are associated with a sedentary lifestyle, including increased adipose tissue (predominantly central); reduced HDL cholesterol; and a trend toward increased triglycerides, blood pressure, and glucose in the genetically susceptible. Compared with individuals who watched television or videos or used their computers for less than one hour daily, those who carried out these behaviors for greater than four hours daily have a twofold increased risk of metabolic syndrome.[27]
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I also had the problem of gumminess. I watched your video and did as you did…I didn’t make any replacements or anything. I didn’t use Jay Robb psyllium. Mine came from a bulk bin somewhere (and I ground it into powder myself), did that make a difference? the loaf was purple but i don’t care about color, i just want it to taste good and not vinegar-y and not gummy!! thanks so much for any suggestions!
Just made this and as a normal bread lover, I am very impressed! But do have a question. Can you over cook this? Mine seems a bit light inside, like a teenie bit mooshy, and can’t see it holding up in a sandwich. The temp was at 200 inside but I had already had it in for like 50 minutes longer than the posted time and I could still hear a little squish but didn’t want to over cook.
A well-formulated ketogenic diet, besides limiting carbohydrates, also limits protein intake moderately to less than 1g/lb body weight, unless individuals are performing heavy exercise involving weight training when the protein intake can be increased to 1.5g/lb body weight. This is to prevent the endogenous production of glucose in the body via gluconeogenesis. However, it does not restrict fat or overall daily calories. People on a ketogenic diet initially experience rapid weight loss up to 10 lbs in 2 weeks or less. This diet has a diuretic effect, and some early weight loss is due to water weight loss followed by a fat loss. Interestingly with this diet plan, lean body muscle is largely spared. As a nutritional ketosis state sustains, hunger pangs subside, and an overall reduction in caloric intake helps to further weight loss.
Whey protein isolate. This one is pretty much a must if you’re baking the bread in a pan (say as opposed to muffins), as it will ensure your bread doesn’t collapse post-bake. Having said that, you can sub it with more almond flour and bake it in a muffin pan (smaller baked goods have don’t require as much structure). Not exactly the same, but works well.
Nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (NFE2L2 or NRF2) is a transcription factor that has a prominent role in antioxidant signaling and also influences mitochondrial bioenergetics. The NFE2L2 abbreviation is used in this review to avoid confusion with nuclear respiratory factor 2, which despite being a different protein, has overlapping function with NFE2L2 and shares the same NRF2 abbreviation [349]. Although the mechanisms of NFE2L2 signaling are not fully elucidated [350], oxidative stress has a clear role in interacting with cysteine residues of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), which decreases proteasomal degradation of NFE2L2 and thereby allows entry of NFE2L2 into the nucleus to induce transcription [351–355]. Although the influence of PGC-1α on antioxidant enzyme expression is not dependent on NFE2L2 [76, 356], PGC-1α increases NFE2L2 expression [357], indicating that NFE2L2 activity is influenced by perturbations in both energy and redox homeostasis. NFE2L2 primarily increases expression of antioxidant enzymes, including SOD1 [358], SOD2 [358], catalase [358–361], GPx [360], NQO1 [354, 359–362], GCL [359–361], GST [362], GSR [359–361], and Prx1 [352], but also increases expression of proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics including NRF-1, NRF-2, TFAM, cytochrome c oxidase, and citrate synthase [358].
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Research shows that Western diet habits are a factor in development of metabolic syndrome, with high consumption of food that is not biochemically suited to humans.[21] Weight gain is associated with metabolic syndrome. Rather than total adiposity, the core clinical component of the syndrome is visceral and/or ectopic fat (i.e., fat in organs not designed for fat storage) whereas the principal metabolic abnormality is insulin resistance.[22] The continuous provision of energy via dietary carbohydrate, lipid, and protein fuels, unmatched by physical activity/energy demand creates a backlog of the products of mitochondrial oxidation, a process associated with progressive mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance.
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Last point of background: Everything I’ve just presented is based on data from starving subjects.  If one restricts carbohydrate intake, typically to less than about 20-50 gm/day (dependent on timing and carbohydrate composition), and maintains modest but not high protein intake (because protein is gluconeogenic – i.e., protein in excess will be converted to glycogen by the liver), one can induce a state referred to as “nutritional ketosis” with similar physiology to what I’ve just presented without resorting to starvation.  Why you’d do this is something I will discuss later.

I made this today. I did not have almond flour so I took some slivered almonds and made flour from them in my nutribullet. This turned out fabulous. Only a pinch of salt is necessary. The variations are endless! I don’t do Keto but I will definitely be making this often for everything!! This is a great save if you are out of bread! Thanks so much for this recipe! It is DELISH!
Heat a large non-stick skillet over medium heat.  Mix all of the ingredients for the pancakes into a small bowl.  Spray the skillet with cooking spray and spoon the batter into 4 round pancakes in the skillet.  Let the pancakes cook until bubbles start to form in the batter around the side.  Flip and continue to cook on the other side until the center on the pancake springs back when lightly touched.
I just tried this for the first time and it didn’t turn out :(, it is very gummy and dense. I used Now Healthy Foods Psyllium Husk Powder, I measure out 10 TBSP and then weighed it, it went way over 90 grams on my scale so I kept using less and less until I got to what I thought was 90 grams. This powder is very fine. I looked for Jay Robb psyllium husk powder but the only thing on his website is psyllium seed husks? No powder? I see on your “store” you’re promoting “Frontier” psyllium husk powder, should we use that instead?
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Further indicating that ketones influence mtROS production through alteration of electron transport, treatment of rat hippocampal slices with BHB + ACA (1 mM each) prevented the increase in mtROS and mitigated the decrease in ATP production that otherwise result from inhibition of mtETC complex I with rotenone [111]. In mitochondria isolated from the brains of mice injected with BHB, although inhibition of complex I with rotenone and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium increased rather than decreased mtROS production, the BHB treatment prevented the decrease in O2 consumption caused by inhibition of complex I, and this occurred independently of uncoupling [112]. Consistent with the results from hippocampal brain slices, the BHB treatment also mitigated the decrease in ATP production caused by complex I inhibition [112]. These effects were prevented by inhibition of complex II with 3-nitropropionic acid or malonate, indicating that BHB primarily influences mitochondrial respiration at complex II [112], which is consistent with ketolysis increasing formation of succinate and FADH2. However, in mutated cells prone to complex I disassembly and an associated severe decrease in complex I activity, treatment with BHB + ACA (5 mM each) increased both the assembly and activity of complex I [113], indicating that ketones somehow promote repair of complex I damage and may therefore influence mitochondrial respiration at more than one site.

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As a matter of fact, in animal models intracerebroventricular injections of long-chain FA reduced hypothalamic expression of NPY. NPY is an important orexogenic neuropeptide that is a downstream target of leptin and insulin in the hypothalamus. In some forms of hyperphagic obesity, characterized by elevated plasma leptin and insulin levels, the lack of action of insulin on NPY expression could explain the pathological condition. Central administration of oleic acid, fatty-acid synthase, or CPT-1 inhibitors prevents the rise in hypothalamic NPY mRNA induced by fasting (Obici et al., 2003). But glucose level is also involved in KD's food control mechanisms. According to glucostatic theory (Mayer, 1955) data indicates that ketosis did not influence FA glucose but instead stimulated the elevation of post-prandial glucose (Sumithran and Proietto, 2013) in non-diabetic subjects, while in diabetics there was a reduction of fasting glucose (Westman et al., 2008). It is important to note that carbohydrate availability may increase cellular levels of long-chain FA-CoA through an increase of malonyl-CoA, which inhibits oxidation of FAs.
I NEVER comment on posts or leave reviews (because I’m lazy lol) but I had to stop in and thank you for this recipe. I have been doing bad on keto because I just cannot stop having some kind of bread in the morning with my coffee. What can I say, I’m weak. I’ve tried the other bread recipes out there and they are disgusting. This was DELICIOUS!! OMG! I think I can get back into ketosis (and stop farting on everyone) thanks to you 😀
^ Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR, Donato KA, Eckel RH, Franklin BA, Gordon DJ, Krauss RM, Savage PJ, Smith SC, Spertus JA, Costa F (October 2005). "Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement". Circulation. 112 (17): 2735–52. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.169404. PMID 16157765.
PGC-1α is also influenced by p38 MAPK, which is well known for being involved in development [301] and adaptation [302] in skeletal muscle. PGC-1α is activated by p38 MAPK [283, 303] through phosphorylation [304], which prevents repression [303] by blocking interaction with the p160 myb binding protein [304]. In addition, expression of PGC-1α is increased by p38 MAPK [305, 306], and the overlap in bioenergetic and antioxidant signaling is further indicated based on p38 MAPK activation by AMPK [307–309], oxidative stress [310–314], and β-adrenergic signaling [280, 315, 316].

A reduced availability of dietary carbohydrates leads to an increased liver production of KBs. The liver cannot utilize KBs because it lacks the mitochondrial enzyme succinyl-CoA: 3-ketoacid (oxoacid) CoA transferase (SCOT) necessary for activation of acetoacetate to acetoacetyl CoA. KBs are utilized by tissues, in particularly by brain. KBs enter the citric acid cycle after being converted to acetyl CoA by hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBD), succinyl-CoA: 3–CoA transferase (SCOT), and methylacetoacetyl CoA thiolase (MAT). Modified from Owen (2005), Paoli et al. (2014).
Before we begin, a disclaimer in order: If you want to actually understand this topic, you must invest the time and mental energy to do so.  You really have to get into the details.  Obviously, I love the details and probably read 5 or 6 scientific papers every week on this topic (and others).  I don’t expect the casual reader to want to do this, and I view it as my role to synthesize this information and present it to you. But this is not a bumper-sticker issue.  I know it’s trendy to make blanket statements – ketosis is “unnatural,” for example, or ketosis is “superior” – but such statements mean nothing if you don’t understand the biochemistry and evolution of our species.  So, let’s agree to let the unsubstantiated statements and bumper stickers reside in the world of political debates and opinion-based discussions.  For this reason, I’ve deliberately broken this post down and only included this content (i.e., background) for Part I.
Maria – I have been looking at this recipe for years. I have bought everything needed over time, down to the kitchen scale but never baked it. For some reason baking bread made me nervous! Well tonight I bit the bullet and tried it out. It was so easy!! I followed your recipe to a T, measured everything…it came our perfectly! Thank you for all you do! The bread is delicious it’s been years since I’ve enjoyed a slice of bread with butter on it! (Kerry a Gold of course!)
Saturated fat: A type of fat found in abundance in butter, whole milk, ice cream, full-fat cheese, fatty meats, poultry skin, and palm and coconut oils. Saturated fat raises levels of heart-threatening LDL cholesterol in your bloodstream. It can also interfere with your body’s ability to absorb blood sugar easily. Limiting saturated fat can help control your risk for heart disease.
Ok folks, I have been experimenting with this recipe for months with varying success/failure. Mostly, no matter what I did, I got the tunnel at the top of the bread and the bottom was rubbery and mehhhhh. I have experimented with different amounts, I have stuck to the precise measurements listed, I have tried different suggestions in the comments. NOTHING. Finally!!!!! I have a perfect loaf, wish I could post a pic. Hope this works for you too. Heres what I did different. First, I used 85 grams of psyllium fiber powder instead of 90, and most importantly, I used finely ground almond flour (Honeyville to be specific) which is honestly what I think made the big difference. Also, I put the bread pan all the way on the bottom rack and I baked it for an hour and 25 minutes. I cannot express the joy I have from finally getting a great result! I hope it helps you too.
Hi Connie, I don’t recommend using whole eggs in this recipe. The two recipes are very different. The egg whites in this recipe are beaten to stiff peaks to create the fluffiness. You could fold the yolks in later, but you’d need to modify the other ingredients, and besides, the bread would turn out very egg-y. The other recipe has fewer eggs than this one, and they are added differently.
Lower fasting blood glucose: Fasting blood glucose gives a good snapshot of insulin sensitivity. In a healthy person, fasting blood glucose is , in pre-diabetes , and in diabetics this can exceed . A clinical study comparing a low calorie ketogenic diet to a low calorie diet showed that following the ketogenic diet resulted in lower blood glucose and lipid levels even if subjects were maintained at a constant weight 102 ,103.
Our bodies need sugar to make energy for the cells. Without it, we cannot do basic functions. When we eat foods with glucose, insulin pairs with it to allow it to enter into the cell wall. If the insulin is not there, then the glucose molecule can’t get through the wall and cannot be used. The extra glucose hangs out in the bloodstream which is literally high blood sugar.
It is important that you check your blood sugar levels on a regular basis. It is the one way that you are able to check and see if what you are doing is working, or if any changes are needed to be made in your lifestyle. Don’t think of checking your sugar as some type of pass or fail test. It’s just like any other numerical value that you get, such as your weight. You may not like what you see, but you can always do your best to improve it.
Increased reliance on mitochondrial respiration will increase the flow of electrons through the mtETC and, in turn, increase the potential for mtROS formation. Although oxidative stress is traditionally viewed as harmful, a modest increase in ROS is now established as a signaling stimulus that induces hormetic adaptation [3]. In regard to mitohormesis and mtROS, such adaptation is largely centered around antioxidant defense [4–6], making mitohormesis an attractive target for the prevention and treatment of chronic disease.

Acetone is a molecule that results from the breakdown of acetoacetate. Acetone is commonly referred to as a ‘waste product’ as it is less readily used as energy compared to BHB (although some studies have shown that acetone can be oxidised as a fuel4. That said, some evidence suggests that it is responsible for the antiseizure effects of ketogenic diets so in may not be completely inert. At low levels acetone in the breath corresponds well to levels of ketones in the blood 12,13, however this is not the case as blood BHB levels increase 13 and if the increase is rapid, such as with exogenous ketone consumption11. 
In a study published in the journal Clinical Nutrition, researchers followed the diets of more than 3,000 adults who didn't have type 2 diabetes for more than four years. They discovered that people with the highest consumption of legumes—especially lentils—had the lowest risk of diabetes. Replacing half a serving of eggs, bread, rice, or baked potato with legumes daily also was associated with lower risk of diabetes incidence. All legumes, which includes lentils and all types of beans, are high in fiber and a good source of protein.
170. Garbow J. R., Doherty J. M., Schugar R. C., et al. Hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and ER stress in mice maintained long term on a very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet. American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. 2011;300(6):G956–G967. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00539.2010. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
Central obesity is a key feature of the syndrome, being both a sign and a cause, in that the increasing adiposity often reflected in high waist circumference may both result from and contribute to insulin resistance. However, despite the importance of obesity, patients who are of normal weight may also be insulin-resistant and have the syndrome.[27]
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I made it tonight and use a mini loaf pan. It came out delicious. I used the link to adjust the recipe measurements using the one third column. I used 2 egg whites. The slices will be small but it was delicious with melted butter. Keto bread recipes and I have tried quite a few have not turned out well for me. I do not like to waste expensive ingredients that is why I will usually do a small amount first. This recipe has been the exception. It is good simple and delicious. I will make it again using the recipe as written. Note: I whipped the egg whites for 10 minutes to get the right consistency. I hope this helps and thank You Maya for finally for me making a bread that tastes great and is easy to make.

Hi I made the Easy paleo keto bread 5 ingredients. It was moist, texture was good but it didn’t turn out completely white, more like a pale yellow and the crust was overdone. I opted for honey as my sweetner because this bread is for my nephew who has autism and we want to keep it as natural as possible. I baked the bread exactly at 325 for 40mins uncovered and then another 40mins covered (tent). What could I do next time to achieve a white bread with golden crust?

People with type 1 diabetes do not produce enough insulin, so their bodies are unable to regulate ketones, which can lead to a dangerous environment. Always consult with your doctor if you have diabetes before changing your diet, and look out for warning signs of ketoacidosis including: excessive thirst, increased urination, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, shortness of breath, weakness, fatigue and confusion.
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I tried this recipe today and I’m blown away. I haven’t started Keto yet but I am soon. I’ve been trying recipes out, and I truly didn’t expect this to come out right the first time because I’ve never whipped egg whites or folded them into anything. I’m a terrible baker. It was so easy! Even my toddler and husband loves this! I didn’t use the sweetener and love the way it tastes!
359. Shelar S. B., Narasimhan M., Shanmugam G., et al. Disruption of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived-2)-like 2 antioxidant signaling: a mechanism for impaired activation of stem cells and delayed regeneration of skeletal muscle. FASEB Journal. 2016;30(5):1865–1879. doi: 10.1096/fj.201500153. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
I made dressing/stuffing out of this bread! I cut the bread into slices, then cut the slices into cubes. I put them on a metal pan and into my toaster oven on low temperature and let them crisp up. It takes a good while, but they DO get crisp! Then I have my croutons for the dressing. The dressing I made was delicious. I think the next time I make the bread to use for croutons I’m going to add onion powder and sage to the mixture before baking so the croutons will be seasoned some before I begin making the dressing! Love this bread! It is the most like wheat flour bread that I have tried! Thanks Maya!
Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of cardiovascular risk factors that leads to an increased risk for premature cardiovascular disease and increased susceptibility of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. The syndrome represents a collection of multiple derangements that include elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance or insulin resistance, atherogenic dyslipidemia (i.e., high triglycerides, low high‐density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol, and small low‐density lipoprotein [LDL] particles), proinflammatory and prothrombotic properties, and obesity, with a particular contribution of abdominal obesity. There are two definitions for adults: World Health Organization, 1998 and the National Cholesterol Education Panel (NCEP), Third Adult Treatment Panel, 2001.
You’ve got a few options here. Erythritol (Lakanto is awesome here), Xylitol (non-corn though to avoid tummy troubles!) and allulose are my top choices (no aftertaste at all!). Pyure is also a good one for muffins and quick breads, particularly if you’re trying to limit your sugar alcohol consumption (it’s added stevia makes it twice as sweet as sugar… i.e. you add half!).
Metabolic syndrome is quite common. Approximately 32% of the population in the U.S. has metabolic syndrome, and about 85% of those with type 2 diabetes have metabolic syndrome. Around 25% of adults in Europe and Latin America are estimated to have the condition, and rates are rising in developing East Asian countries. Within the US, Mexican Americans have the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome increases with age, and about 40% of people over 60 are affected.
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This is now my go to for lo-carb bread recipe. It is SO EASY! I made it last weekend, Instead of Xanthan gum I used konjac root powder, it worked just fine, my baking time was more like 50 minutes and I did cover the top loosely with foil for the first 15 minutes so the top wouldn’t brown so quickly (maybe why my cooking time was so long?) I also added a pinch of Bakers yeast (brewers yeast is NOT gluten free) just for flavor and stevia 3/4 T. This bread makes really good grilled cheese or avocado toast! Very yummy! Thanks for this recipe!

Made this bread this morning Will use a little less water next time as along the bottom of the loaf about ½ an inch deep was a bit doughy & it did sink in the middle was also a darker colour than the one in the picture but is so yummy Have sliced it into peices & put 2 slices into bags in the freezer for when I have toast for breakfast Going to make another loaf tomorrow as my husband thought it was great So pleased to have finally found a bread recipe I can enjoy Thank u so much Really enjoy browsing on here
The Caerphilly Heart Disease Study followed 2,375 male subjects over 20 years and suggested the daily intake of a pint (~568 ml) of milk or equivalent dairy products more than halved the risk of metabolic syndrome.[51] Some subsequent studies support the authors' findings, while others dispute them.[52] A systematic review of four randomized controlled trials found that a paleolithic nutritional pattern improved three of five measurable components of the metabolic syndrome in participants with at least one of the components.[53]

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I made this bread several times by grinding the jay robb psyllium husks, but never got a good loaf. Then I bought the now brand psyllium husk powder and it worked without turning purple. I did have to weigh everything and cook it about an hour and a half or longer. When I cooked it the first time it sank in the middle. If you don’t have a vitamin or blend tech this is the way to go.
Well, everyone, I am sensitive to psyllium so I experimented and it kind of worked! I made a half recipe using chia seed I ground in my Vitamix into 5 buns. They didn’t really rise but the flavor was quite good. Might add garlic and onion powder next time. I was able to slice the skinny bun and have a burger on it. Yum! Hadn’t had a burger on a bun for ages! Worth a try! I did weigh everything and was very precise so inaccurate quantities would not be an issue. Maria, any ideas on how to make this mixture rise some? I’m sure I’m not the only one with psyllium issues. Can’t have flax much either and I think if I have the chia too often that will give me tummy trouble also. One more question Maria. Is there a reason for no salt in the egg white protein bread? I don’t really like the flavor or texture but thought salt and seasonings would help. Thank you, Maria! You have made my meals so much more enjoyable! So grateful!

The prevalence of metabolic syndrome increases with age, with about 40% of people older than 60 years meeting the criteria. [26] However, metabolic syndrome can no longer be considered a disease of only adult populations. Alarmingly, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus are increasingly prevalent in the pediatric population, again in parallel with a rise in obesity. [50]

^ Jump up to: a b c Taboulet P, Deconinck N, Thurel A, Haas L, Manamani J, Porcher R, Schmit C, Fontaine JP, Gautier JF (April 2007). "Correlation between urine ketones (acetoacetate) and capillary blood ketones (3-beta-hydroxybutyrate) in hyperglycaemic patients". Diabetes & Metabolism. 33 (2): 135–9. doi:10.1016/j.diabet.2006.11.006. PMID 17320448.

In type 2 diabetes the body has an increasingly harder time to handle all the sugar in the blood. Large amounts of the blood sugar-lowering hormone insulin are produced, but it’s still not enough, as insulin sensitivity decreases. At the time of being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, people usually have ten times more insulin in their bodies than normal. As a side effect, this insulin stores fat and causes weight gain, something that has often been in progress for many years before the disease was diagnosed.
As is in the case of GABA, the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) hypothesis works against the hunger-suppressive role of KD: it has been demonstrated that the hypothalamic ROS increase through NADPH oxidase is required for the eating-inhibitory effect of insulin (Jaillard et al., 2009); moreover it has been demonstrated that there is a ROS-dependent signaling pathway within the hypothalamus that regulates the energy homeostasis, and that activation of ROS-sensitive mechanisms could be sufficient to promote satiety (Benani et al., 2007). On the other side, KBs decreases mitochondrial production of ROS by increasing NADH oxidation in the mitochondrial respiratory chain (Maalouf et al., 2007).

Thank you Mira for your quick reply. I didn’t make it that same day but I just made a batch now and they are excellent! I really enjoyed them. I made the recipe times 10 for 12 large muffin slots in the muffin tin. I’m thinking of shaping a larger round of batter on a parchment lined pan next time and after baking, carefully cutting in half to make 2 rounds to make a pizza crust. Thank you so much!!!
Once your yeast is proofed, add in the egg, egg whites, lightly cooled melted butter (you don't want to scramble the eggs or kill the yeast!) and vinegar. Mix with an electric mixer for a couple minutes until light and frothy. Add the flour mixture in two batches, alternating with the sour cream, and mixing until thoroughly incorporated. You want to mix thoroughly and quickly to activate the xanthan gum, though the dough will become thick as the flours absorb the moisture.