The ARC exerts opposing actions on food intake responding not only to leptin and insulin, but also to gut hormones (the most studied are ghrelin and, recently, PYY). The neurophysiological pathways suggest that feeding is regulated by a feedback loop, where the hypothalamus provides the long-term regulatory input to the NTS, which acts as a setpoint (Williams et al., 2001).


In the absence of acetyl CoA (several ways this can happen, including substrate shortage, as I’m describing here) we evolved a cool trick.  Our liver can make – out of fat or protein, though we much prefer to use fat so we can spare our protein and prevent severe muscle wasting – something called beta-hydroxybutyrate, one of the 3 ketone bodies I described above.
Pancakes. They’re a breakfast classic. You see them on just about every breakfast menu you’ve ever looked at and for good reason. But sadly they are not low carb, even in the slightest. So what if I told you that you can have your pancakes on a low carb diet and eat them without feeling guilty? With these Keto Silver Dollar Pancakes you can do just that.
I have great respect for Harvard Medical School. I notice that they support their readers posting comments and I am most appreciative of the article and all the many thoughtful comments by the readers. The readers seem to have the most expertise here and I hope that the doctor who wrote the article will think long and hard about the comments by readers. After 35 years of clinical practice in mental health, I notice that all issues of emotion involve medical issues, nutrition, and the gut bacteria. I would say that these issues and all of the executive brain functions seem to improve with ketogenic principles. For those that apply it in a flexible and smart manner, it appears to improve every area of their lives. I strongly encourage the author of the article to take one class via The Institute for Functional Medicine. If he is open to more learning he can take more classes and get certified. I’m sure a fine doctor, he will be an even better doctor and personally healthier, if he gets more training. Are we all open to new learning(especially us healthcare providers)?
It looks and smells beautiful when baking. The bottom of my loaves is heavy and dense. The top rises and makes an air pocket. As a result, it’s just not really pleasant to eat with it being so dense and solid even though it tastes good. The few good pieces at the very ends were yummy. I really don’t know what to do. Almond flour is expensive to be going through it like this. 🙁
The advice above is therefore not only illogical, but also works poorly. It completely lacks scientific support according to a Swedish expert investigation. On the contrary, in recent years similar carbohydrate-rich dietary advice has been shown to increase the risk of getting diabetes and appears to potentially worsen blood sugar levels long-term in people who already have type 2 diabetes. The advice does not improve their health in other important ways either.
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Hi Howard, You’re right that this bread doesn’t rise much – the volume comes mostly from whipping the egg whites. If the whites fell too much, the bread might not be tall enough. But even if they didn’t, it might still be shorter than some other tall bread loaves. Feel free to multiply the recipe by 1.5 if you prefer a taller loaf. I’m glad you liked the flavor and texture!
Hi Aamash, Sometimes egg whites from a carton are more difficult to beat to stiff peaks, though I do use those all the time myself. Usually it’s best to add some cream of tartar when beating especially if you are using the whites from a carton. This will help them come to stiff peaks. Having the egg whites at room temperature also helps, versus cold from the fridge.

A little more than 9.2% of pregnant women have gestational diabetes. It is very common that all women are tested during their pregnancy. If you haven’t yet, bring it up to your physician’s attention. The cause is really unknown, but doctors believe that it is because the extra hormones that are released during pregnancy hinder the insulin sensitivity and increase the need for more insulin. It is very important to keep blood sugar levels under control because high blood sugars can lead to complications such as:


Why is the keto diet good for you? A keto diet is one that prioritizes fats and proteins over carbohydrates. It can help reduce body weight, acne, and the risk of cancer. Find out about the mechanisms through which it achieves these benefits and the research that supports it. This MNT Knowledge Center article also discusses the risks of the diet. Read now

The most common reason that any bread falls is that it needed to bake for longer. That being said, I’ll be perfectly honest – sometimes this keto bread recipe falls anyway, even despite doing everything else right. Fortunately this isn’t a huge deal because it still tastes delicious – IF you baked it for long enough and the center is cooked through.
” I am here to express my profound warm gratitude to the Arthur Moon medicine, which i got from Dr Arthur Moon. I am now leaving a healthy life since the past 4 month i am now herpes disease free after the application and usage. You can contact for your medication from via Email [ arthurmoon01@gmail.com ] Wish you all the best and a happy healing. Thanks and God Bless you for your help, i will keep on help you to fight herpes disease in the World.
Disclaimer: This blog is for general informational purposes only and does not constitute the practice of medicine, nursing or other professional health care services, including the giving of medical advice, and no doctor/patient relationship is formed. The use of information on this blog or materials linked from this blog is at the user's own risk. The content of this blog is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Users should not disregard, or delay in obtaining, medical advice for any medical condition they may have, and should seek the assistance of their health care professionals for any such conditions.
Ketosis is a nutritional process characterised by serum concentrations of ketone bodies over 0.5 mM, with low and stable levels of insulin and blood glucose.[1][2] It is almost always generalized with hyperketonemia, that is, an elevated level of ketone bodies in the blood throughout the body. Ketone bodies are formed by ketogenesis when liver glycogen stores are depleted (or from metabolising medium-chain triglycerides[3]). Ketones can also be consumed in exogenous ketone foods and supplements.
I love this recipe! Thanks for sharing, my 1st batch came out awesome, my 2nd batch, like others have described came out a bit dry and started breaking apart. So I added about a tablespoon of hot water at a time till I got the texture that I wanted and it didnt fall apart after I added a bit more water. This dough texture reminds me a lot of corn dough that is used to make tamales. So if you've made tamales this might be easy for you to make. I also took another user's advise and used a corn tortilla press, that made spreading it an easy. Definitely a redo. Already made 2 batches one with chorizo and egg the other with pepperoni, marinara and cheese and the kids love them!
Ketosis is the result of following the ketogenic diet, which is why it’s also sometimes called “the ketosis diet.” Ketosis takes place when glucose from carbohydrate foods (like grains, all sources of sugar or fruit, for example) is drastically reduced, which forces the body to find an alternative fuel source: fat. Although dietary fat (especially saturated fat) often gets a bad name, provoking fear of weight gain and heart disease, it’s also your body’s second preferred source of energy when carbohydrates are not easily accessible.

Optimally, the management approach results in weight loss based on a healthy diet and regular physical activity, which includes a combination of aerobic activity and resistance training, reinforced with behavioral therapy. Metformin, an insulin sensitizer, or a thiazolidinedione (eg, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone) may be useful. Weight loss of ≈ 7% may be sufficient to reverse the syndrome, but if not, each feature of the syndrome should be managed to achieve recommended targets; available drug treatment is very effective.
In the United States, metabolic syndrome has a high prevalence in African Americans, particularly African American women, and this has been attributed to the higher prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes in this population. [40] However, the highest age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the United States is found in Mexican Americans, approximately 31.9% of whom had the condition (compared with 27% of the general population) in a 1988-1994 survey. [41]
The Caerphilly Heart Disease Study followed 2,375 male subjects over 20 years and suggested the daily intake of a pint (~568 ml) of milk or equivalent dairy products more than halved the risk of metabolic syndrome.[51] Some subsequent studies support the authors' findings, while others dispute them.[52] A systematic review of four randomized controlled trials found that a paleolithic nutritional pattern improved three of five measurable components of the metabolic syndrome in participants with at least one of the components.[53]
194. Ruth M. R., Port A. M., Shah M., et al. Consuming a hypocaloric high fat low carbohydrate diet for 12 weeks lowers C-reactive protein, and raises serum adiponectin and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in obese subjects. Metabolism. 2013;62(12):1779–1787. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2013.07.006. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
The metabolic theory states that the root cause of cancer is a defect in mitochondrial energy production or ‘an irreversible injuring in respiration’91. Once the cells ability to produce energy is compromised, this is hypothesised to lead to the subsequent accumulation of changes that make the cell cancerous92. A key change is decreased mitochondrial glucose metabolism in cancer cells. Cancer cells ferment glucose to lactate (which happens outside of the mitochondria) at a much higher rate than normal cells93, in a change called ‘The Warburg Effect.’ This implicates damage to the mitochondria and failure in energy production as a central process of cancer progression. 
I contracted hsv from my ex partner we broke up the relationship about four years ago, I has been on treatment for some years, I had lot pains and embarrassment for been Hsv patient last two month i did Hsv research online and found website for natural treatment to get ride of my infection, and i went through the site and recommend me to Dr Ben I contacted Dr Ben through his website and been his patient after one month I got cured. I want everyone living with Hsv to get this treatment and got cured Dr Ben have the cure to every virus. his email;
I know this’s strange to believe because there’s no cure for herpes virus and that was my believe until my friend from Africa introduced me to a traditional herbalist! We talked he ask me questions about how I feel then he sent me a bottle of herbal medication and a tree root which I took for almost two weeks. Firstly the pain were gone I wasn’t experiencing any signs of the virus again I was so happy and nervous I couldn’t go back to my doctor for checkup because I was strong and okay that way cos I know deep down my heart that I was cured of herpes until I later went to the hospital to check and the results was miraculous. Contact this Excel today if you in same situation Excelherbalcure@gmail.com call him +1 (859) 429 1007
Clinical trials of various ketogenic agents have shown promising outcomes in AD. Recently, a case report was published describing a dramatic improvement in cognitive function in a patient consuming daily drinks of a ketone ester of beta-hydroxybutyrate-butanediol54. This corroborates evidence from animal studies of AD, which showed behavioural and anatomical improvements in AD mice treated with the same ketone ester55. Also, medical foods containing medium chain triglycerides can give an acute improvement in cognitive scores in AD patients 56 ,57. The effectiveness of this treatment was found to depend on the absence of a gene variant that has been associated to increased chance of AD, called APOE4. Finally, following a ketogenic diet for 6 weeks improved the symptoms of mild cognitive impairment58. It is still early days, but the use of ketogenic diets and exogenous ketones may help to improve the quality of life of patients with dementia and their caregivers.             
In 1977 and 1978, Gerald B. Phillips developed the concept that risk factors for myocardial infarction concur to form a "constellation of abnormalities" (i.e., glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension) associated not only with heart disease, but also with aging, obesity and other clinical states. He suggested there must be an underlying linking factor, the identification of which could lead to the prevention of cardiovascular disease; he hypothesized that this factor was sex hormones.[66][67]
Bhasin et al, as part of the Framingham Heart Study, found that sex hormone-binding globulin is independently associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome, whereas testosterone is not. Age, body mass index (BMI), and insulin sensitivity independently affect sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone levels. [48] More recent studies have raised the possibility of an association between testosterone deficiency and metabolic syndrome. [49]
Recent studies indicate that mood disorders such as depression and anxiety can be linked to a range of physical changes in the brain, such as inflammation or change in gene expression71. Early results from animal studies have shown that ketosis could improve mood disorders, although the mechanism is still unclear. Rats fed exogenous ketones for several weeks showed reduced anxiety behaviours72. Similarly, endogenous and exogenous BHB alleviated depressive behaviour in mice subjected to stress73. This was found to be linked to altered epigenetic markers (modifications to DNA that affect the degree of gene expression) and an increased amount of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain. At this time, there are no trials investigating the effects of ketosis in human patients with mood disorders. 
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All of the factors associated with metabolic syndrome are interrelated. Obesity and lack of exercise tend to lead to insulin resistance. Insulin resistance has a negative effect on lipid production, increasing VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein), LDL (low-density lipoprotein – the "bad" cholesterol), and triglyceride levels in the blood and decreasing HDL (high-density lipoprotein – the "good" cholesterol). This can lead to fatty plaque deposits in the arteries which, over time, can lead to cardiovascular disease and strokes. Insulin resistance also leads to increased insulin and glucose levels in the blood. Excess insulin increases sodium retention by the kidneys, which increases blood pressure and can lead to hypertension. Chronically elevated glucose levels in turn damage blood vessels and organs, such as the kidneys. 

Although metabolic syndrome is a serious condition, you can reduce your risks significantly by reducing your weight; increasing your physical activity; eating a heart-healthy diet that's rich in whole grains, fruits, vegetables and fish; and working with your healthcare provider to monitor and manage blood glucose, blood cholesterol, and blood pressure.
A ketogenic diet could be an interesting alternative to treat certain conditions, and may accelerate weight loss. But it is hard to follow and it can be heavy on red meat and other fatty, processed, and salty foods that are notoriously unhealthy. We also do not know much about its long-term effects, probably because it’s so hard to stick with that people can’t eat this way for a long time. It is also important to remember that “yo-yo diets” that lead to rapid weight loss fluctuation are associated with increased mortality. Instead of engaging in the next popular diet that would last only a few weeks to months (for most people that includes a ketogenic diet), try to embrace change that is sustainable over the long term. A balanced, unprocessed diet, rich in very colorful fruits and vegetables, lean meats, fish, whole grains, nuts, seeds, olive oil, and lots of water seems to have the best evidence for a long, healthier, vibrant life.
This is now my go to for lo-carb bread recipe. It is SO EASY! I made it last weekend, Instead of Xanthan gum I used konjac root powder, it worked just fine, my baking time was more like 50 minutes and I did cover the top loosely with foil for the first 15 minutes so the top wouldn’t brown so quickly (maybe why my cooking time was so long?) I also added a pinch of Bakers yeast (brewers yeast is NOT gluten free) just for flavor and stevia 3/4 T. This bread makes really good grilled cheese or avocado toast! Very yummy! Thanks for this recipe!

Maria, I made your bread using NOW psyllium, it tastes more like a loaf of real bread than anything I’ve tried. It’s lots better than the pricey Low Carb Bread Company loaves that I have been buying on Netrition. I had previously tried a similar recipe that had coconut flour, and even though I added quite a bit of onion powder, the coconut flavor was still distinguishable, and I’m not a fan.
^ Jump up to: a b Sinclair, H. M. (1953). "The Diet of Canadian Indians and Eskimos" (PDF). Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 12 (1): 69–82. doi:10.1079/PNS19530016. ISSN 0029-6651. It is, however, worth noting that according to the customary convention (Woodyatt, 1921 ; Shaffer, 1921) this diet is not ketogenic since the ratio of ketogenic(FA) to ketolytic (G) aliments is 1.09. Indeed, the content of fat would have to exactly double (324 g daily) to make the diet ketogenic (FA/G>1–5).
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I have great respect for Harvard Medical School. I notice that they support their readers posting comments and I am most appreciative of the article and all the many thoughtful comments by the readers. The readers seem to have the most expertise here and I hope that the doctor who wrote the article will think long and hard about the comments by readers. After 35 years of clinical practice in mental health, I notice that all issues of emotion involve medical issues, nutrition, and the gut bacteria. I would say that these issues and all of the executive brain functions seem to improve with ketogenic principles. For those that apply it in a flexible and smart manner, it appears to improve every area of their lives. I strongly encourage the author of the article to take one class via The Institute for Functional Medicine. If he is open to more learning he can take more classes and get certified. I’m sure a fine doctor, he will be an even better doctor and personally healthier, if he gets more training. Are we all open to new learning(especially us healthcare providers)?
In both the nutrition literature and public dietary guidelines, nonstarchy vegetables are one of the few dietary components nearly unanimously agreed upon as healthful. Given their health-supporting characteristics and low carbohydrate content, they should be a prominent component of any ketogenic diet. Beyond the primary features of a well-formulated ketogenic diet, such as macronutrient proportions, adequate mineral intake, and appropriate selection of fat sources, which have been discussed more thoroughly elsewhere [34, 35], inclusion of nonstarchy vegetables is an important consideration, given that reports in the literature of adverse effects resulting from ketogenic diets are often associated with extreme implementations that typically lack plant matter. In fact, for this reason, it has recently been recommended to increase the nonstarchy vegetable content of ketogenic diets used to treat epilepsy [38]. Beyond adding variety to the diet, benefits of nonstarchy vegetables that may be particularly relevant to nutritional ketosis include the maintenance of adequate micronutrient status and the presence of prebiotic fiber as substrate for the gut microbiota. In addition to the importance of prebiotic fiber for basic health, the short-chain fatty acids produced by the gut microbiota from this dietary fiber support ketogenesis [39] and metabolic signaling related to mitochondrial function and antioxidant defense [40]. Furthermore, nonstarchy vegetables are a source of the many micronutrients needed to support energy metabolism. As such, there is more to a ketogenic diet than simply restricting carbohydrate. Selection of a variety of nutrient-dense foods is therefore an important component of nutritional ketosis that should be given consideration in any clinical or academic implementation.
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KBs can cross the BBB but not in a homogenous manner. For example, past experiments have demonstrated that BHB utilization is different in various brain areas (Hawkins and Biebuyck, 1979). Areas without BBB, hypothalamic regions and the lower cortical layers have a higher BHB metabolism compared to the lower one of the basal ganglia (Hawkins and Biebuyck, 1979). Also the metabolic meaning of the three KBs is different: while the main KB produced in the liver is AcAc, the primary circulating ketone is BHB. The third one, acetone, is produced by spontaneous decarboxylation of AcAc, and it is the cause of the classic “fruity breath.” Acetone does not have any metabolic functions, but it can be used as a clinical diagnostic marker. BHB acid is not, strictly speaking, a KB because the ketone moiety has been reduced to a hydroxyl group. Under normal conditions the production of free AcAc is negligible and this compound, transported via the blood stream, is easily metabolized by various tissues including skeletal muscles and the heart. In conditions of overproduction, AcAc accumulates above normal levels and a part is converted to the other two KBs. The presence of KBs in the blood and their elimination via urine causes ketonemia and ketonuria. Apart from being the fundamental energy supply for CNS, glucose is necessary for the replenishment of the quota of oxaloacetate, since this intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) is labile at body temperature and cannot be accumulated in the mitochondrial matrix. Hence it is necessary to refurnish the TCA with oxaloacetate via the anaplerotic cycle that derives it from glucose through ATP dependent carboxylation of pyruvic acid by pyruvate carboxylase (Jitrapakdee et al., 2006). This pathway is the only way to create oxaloacetate in mammals. Once produced by the liver, KBs are used by tissues as a source of energy (Fukao et al., 2004; Veech, 2004; McCue, 2010): initially BHB is converted back to AcAc that is subsequently transformed into Acetoacetyl-CoA that undergoes a reaction producing two molecules of Acetyl-CoA to be used in the Krebs cycle (Figure ​(Figure22).
Hi James, Thank you for sharing. Most likely this wasn’t fully cooked if it stuck to the parchment paper, as I never have to grease it, but I did add a note to the post that you could do that to be on the safe side. I think the previous recipe and post were not clear enough on how to make sure that it’s done, so I updated them and hope that will help. I’d love to know if that made a difference if you try it again. But, this bread is more similar to fluffy pre-sliced white bread than a crusty bread, so I still would not expect a crust. If you are looking for a crusty bread, try this almond flour bread instead.
If you divide the dough in 3 you'll cook the bread for 90 seconds on high, but if you cook it all together you'll want to do 150 seconds (2 1/2 minutes). Time can vary a lot in microwaves, but to give you an idea mine is 1000 watts. Either way, it'll come out looking pale and spongy (and not very appetizing at all tbh!). But worry not, just wait for it to cool down until just lightly warm (it continues to cook as it cools guys!). Then you'll definitely want to give it a good toast to get some texture on (non negotiable guys!). 

If you divide the dough in 3 you'll cook the bread for 90 seconds on high, but if you cook it all together you'll want to do 150 seconds (2 1/2 minutes). Time can vary a lot in microwaves, but to give you an idea mine is 1000 watts. Either way, it'll come out looking pale and spongy (and not very appetizing at all tbh!). But worry not, just wait for it to cool down until just lightly warm (it continues to cook as it cools guys!). Then you'll definitely want to give it a good toast to get some texture on (non negotiable guys!). 


Metabolic syndrome is a common condition that goes by many names (dysmetabolic syndrome, syndrome X, insulin resistance syndrome, obesity syndrome, and Reaven syndrome). Most people identified as having this syndrome have been educated about the importance of watching for signs of diabetes, having their blood pressure monitored and lipid levels checked, and exercising – but there has been little to tie all of these factors together except pursuit of a "healthier lifestyle."

Looking back on my earlier posts on ketosis—and explaining what I eat, for example—makes me both chuckle and cringe. I remember how bizarre the diet seemed to many readers and the general public at the time. I also remember digging into the literature and learning, for example, that my alma mater, Johns Hopkins had been using the ketogenic diet to treat pediatric epilepsy for almost a century…and being so embarrassed about admonishing that patient I saw in my residency.
The sausage for this keto breakfast sandwich is pretty straight forward.  I used half a pound of store bought breakfast sausage.  I formed it into 2 patties and cooked them in my cast iron skillet.  Cook it on medium-high heat and don’t touch it until it forms a crust.  Try to ignore the splatters all over the stovetop, unless you’re OCD like me and you wipe it away while everything is still cooking.  Then wipe again, and again.

Maria and Craig: I made this recipe (into kaiser roll shapes) on Sunday night for the first time. I just ate my first sandwich (pork roast and mayo, yummy) on it and almost wept with happiness. It is SO good. The texture is PERFECT. It was easy and quick to make. And I can actually see my way to a GF lifestyle…sandwiches have been my bugaboo all along. Thank you, thank you for all your hard work and wonderful recipes!


Adipose tissue can be used to store fatty acids for regulating temperature and energy.[21] These fatty acids can be released by adipokine signaling of high glucagon and epinephrine levels, which inversely corresponds to low insulin levels. High glucagon and low insulin correspond to times of fasting or to times when blood glucose levels are low.[23] Fatty acids must be metabolized in mitochondria in order to produce energy, but free fatty acids cannot penetrate biological membranes due to their negative electrical charge. So coenzyme A is bound to the fatty acid to produce acyl-CoA, which is able to enter the mitochondria.
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Concussion (a mild form of TBI), is defined as a short term impairment of brain function caused by impact. Symptoms include dizziness, confusion and headache. When the brain suffers a concussive impact this triggers an acute cascade of cellular events that can eventually cause chronic problems. Firstly, immediately after impact there are changes to the concentrations of ions and neurotransmitters in and outside of the neurones. For example, the cells release potassium and glutamate (excitatory neurotransmitter); this can cause neuronal damage instantly64. The disruption to the equilibrium of substances within the brain must be corrected, which requires the action of the ATP dependant ion pumps in the cell membranes. In order to produce enough ATP the brain has a transient period of high glucose metabolism (within 30 minutes of impact), which is followed by a period of glucose metabolic depression that can last anywhere from 5 days to several months, depending on severity65. In this time the brain is starved of energy when it is unable to metabolise glucose, which can cause long term damage. Severe or repeated impacts can lead to development of conditions such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). 

Look, the good doctor is right – he only forgot to stress “portion control” which is why many fanatical dieters are so kee-jerk reactive to any discussion – odds are you over ate like a hog before your keto diet, and are weak and insecure in your diet plans. Eat EVERYTHING in small amounts, and you will live long and prosper. The only thing to avoid are processed foods. Cook your meals from scratch using quality ingredients.
For a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome, a child must have at least three of the four risk factors. The most common risk factors in teens are hypertension and abnormal cholesterol. Even when just one risk factor is present, a doctor will likely check for the others. This is especially true if a child is overweight, has a family member with type 2 diabetes, or has acanthosis nigricans.

Meanwhile, the KD induces a ketosis that is not a pathological but physiological condition occurring on a daily basis. Hans Krebs was the first to use the term “physiological ketosis” despite the common view of it as oxymoron (Krebs, 1966); this physiological condition, i.e., ketosis, can be reached through fasting or through a drastically reduced carbohydrate diet (below 20 g per day). In these conditions, glucose reserves become insufficient both for normal fat oxidation via the supply of oxaloacetate in the Krebs cycle and for the supply of glucose to the central nervous system (CNS) (Felig et al., 1969; Owen et al., 1969) (Figure ​(Figure1).1). It is well-known that the CNS cannot use FAs as an energy source because free FAs cannot cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This is why the brain normally uses only glucose. After 3–4 days without carbohydrate intake (KD or fasting) the CNS must find alternative energy sources as demonstrated by Cahill et al. (Owen et al., 1967, 1969; Felig et al., 1969; Cahill, 2006). These alternative energy sources are the ketones bodies (KBs): acetoacetate (AcAc), β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB) and acetone and the process of their formation occurring principally in the mitochondrial matrix in the liver is called ketogenesis (Fukao et al., 2004). Usually the concentration of KB is very low (<0.3 mmol/L) compared to glucose (≅ 4 mmol) (Veech, 2004; Paoli et al., 2010). Since glucose and KB have a similar KM for glucose transport to the brain the KB begin to be utilized as an energy source by the CNS when they reach a concentration of about 4 mmol/L (Veech, 2004), which is close to the KM for the monocarboxylate transporter (Leino et al., 2001).
The concentration of ketone bodies may vary depending on diet, exercise, degree of metabolic adaptation and genetic factors. Ketosis can be induced when a ketogenic diet is followed for more than 3 days.[34] This induced ketosis is sometimes called nutritional ketosis.[35] This table shows the concentrations typically seen under different conditions[1]
Mediterranean diet: Traditional cuisine of countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea, shown to reduce the risk for heart disease, diabetes, some cancers and dementia. On the menu: Plenty of fruits, vegetables and beans, along with olive oil, nuts, whole grains, seafood; moderate amounts of low-fat yogurt, low-fat cheese and poultry; small amounts of red meat and sweets; and wine, in moderation, with meals.
Moreover, recent studies show that the Inuit have evolved a number of rare genetic adaptations that make them especially well suited to eat large amounts of omega-3 fat.[57][58][59] And earlier studies showed that the Inuit have a very high frequency—68% to 81% in certain arctic coastal populations—of an extremely rare autosomal recessive mutation of the CPT1A gene—a key regulator of mitochondrial long-chain fatty-acid oxidation[60][61]—which results in a rare metabolic disorder known as carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) deficiency and promotes hypoketotic hypoglycemia—low levels of ketones and low blood sugar.[62] The condition presents symptoms of a fatty acid and ketogenesis disorder.[62] However, it appears highly beneficial to the Inuit[60] as it shunts free fatty acids away from liver cells to brown fat, for thermogenesis.[63][64] Thus the mutation may help the Inuit stay warm by preferentially burning fatty acids for heat in brown fat cells.[64] In addition to promoting low ketone levels, this disorder also typically results in hepatic encephalopathy (altered mental state due to improper liver function), enlarged liver and high infant mortality.[65] Inuit have been observed to have enlarged livers with an increased capacity for gluconeogenesis, and have greater capacity for excreting urea to remove ammonia, a toxic byproduct of protein breakdown.[57][66][67][68] Ethnographic texts have documented the Inuit's customary habit of snacking frequently [69] and this may well be a direct consequence of their high prevalence of the CPT1A mutation[70] as fasting, even for several hours, can be deleterious for individuals with that allele, particularly during strenuous exercise.[57][70] The high frequency of the CPT1A mutation in the Inuit therefore suggests that it is an important adaptation to their low carbohydrate diet and their extreme environment.[57][60][70]
As with other sources of oxidative stress, mtROS can damage enzymes and cell membranes and subsequently facilitate the pathogenesis of chronic disease [41]. Oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is of particular concern because of its proximity to the electron transport chain (mtETC). Furthermore, compared to nuclear DNA, mtDNA is more prone to oxidative damage and is not repaired as effectively [42–45], although this has been debated based on more recent evidence [46–50]. Unrepaired mtDNA damage leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, which is implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of chronic diseases [51] and associated with shorter lifespan [52]. Therefore, while moderate levels of mtROS have important roles in signaling and health, protection against excessive levels is also important.
I am very happy today to share this amazing testimony on how Dr. MAGGI the herbal doctor was able to cure me from my HIV Virus with his herbal medicine. I have been a HIV patient for almost 8 months now and have tried different methods of treatment to ensure that I am cured of this terrible disease, but none worked for me, so I had to leave everything to God to handle as I was a Christian who had faith that one day God would intervene in my life, yet I felt so sad and desperate as I was losing almost everything due to my illness, A few months ago while I was surfing the internet I saw different recommendation about Dr MAGGI on how he have been using his herbal Medicine to treat and cure people, these people advice we contact Dr. MAGGI for any problem that would help immediately, I contacted Dr MAGGI ,and I told him how I got his contact and also about my disease, after some time Dr.MAGGI, told me to have faith that he would prepare medicine for me a medication of herbal herbs, he told me I would take this medicine for a few weeks and also asked for my home address so as possible for him to submit the drug for me, so my good friends after all the process and everything Dr MAGGI, actually sent me the medicine, I took it as I was directed by Dr. MAGGI,, after a few weeks passed, while on Dr.MAGGI medication I began to experience changes in my body, I had to call my doctor at the hospital for some blood test after test my hospital doctor told me that I was no longer with the Hiv virus and my blood is pretty good, I can’t even believe this, Friends well today i am Hiv Negative and i want everyone to know that there is a cure for Hiv for those who will contact Dr MAGGI after reading my testimony, you can kindly contact Dr. MAGGI on Email:Maggiherbalcenter@gmail.com or call/whatsap him +2348148487280,or you can also check him on his Webs:https://drmaggiherbalcenter.webs.com .God bless you all..
Hunger and satiety are two important mechanisms involved in body weight regulation. Even though humans can regulate food intake by will, there are systems within the central nervous system (CNS) that regulate food intake and energy expenditure. This complex network, whose control center is spread over different brain areas, receives information from adipose tissue, the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and from blood and peripheral sensory receptors. The actions of the brain's hunger/satiety centers are influenced by nutrients, hormones and other signaling molecules. Ketone bodies are the major source of energy in the periods of fasting and/or carbohydrate shortage and might play a role in food intake control.
Hi Maria, I love your bread recipes but can’t get over the one thing, the gritty texture you get in one every couple bites due to the psyllium husk, I have tried different brands and all have it. I haven’t tried Jay Robs yet. But have you tried ground up chia seeds instead by any chance? I read somewhere to just add twice the amount of water. Thanks

Natural herbs have cured so many illness that drugs and injection cant cure. I’ve seen the great importance of natural herbs and the wonderful work they have done in people’s lives. i read people’s testimonies online on how they were cured of herpes, HIV, diabetics etc by Dr. Obor herbal medicine, so i decided to contact the doctor because i know nature has the power to heal anything. I was diagnosed with HIV for the past 7 years but Dr. Obor cured me with his herbs and i referred my aunt and her husband to him immediately because they were both suffering from herpes but to God be the glory, they were cured too .I know is hard to believe but am a living testimony. There is no harm trying herbs. He is also a spell caster, he cast spell to restore broken marriages and he cast good luck spells to prosper and excel in life. Contact Dr. Obor on: hsvcuretemple@gmail.com

All I can say is WOW! I am a week in on this Keto way of eating and came across this simple recipe. Gotta admit, I didn’t think I would like it…I LOVE IT! So easy to make…took me 20 minutes total! It was light, moist and delicious. I used one small loaf pan, doubled the ingredients and made the regular one and the cheese mix in. Can’t wait to share the rest with my co-workers…we are doing this together. Will be back to check for other recipes. Thank you!
When you are choosing types of exercise, pick activities which are going to be enjoyable for you. When you perform activities that you enjoy, you have a better chance of sticking with them. You can occasionally change up the exercises that you do to prevent yourself from getting tired of following the same routine. Great examples of fun exercises are swimming, walking with a friend, or a dance class.
As previously discussed, RET is a prominent source of mtROS and is dependent on a high Δp across the inner mitochondrial membrane. During ATP production, Δp is dissipated as H+ enters the mitochondrial matrix through ATP synthase. Mitochondrial uncoupling also dissipates Δp, but by allowing translocation of H+ into the matrix independent of ATP synthase. Uncoupling is therefore regarded as an antioxidant defense in that it can mitigate mtROS production [122–126]. In fact, only a small dissipation of ΔΨ or ΔpH (components of Δp) is needed for a large decrease in mtROS production [57–60, 127].
Urine test for diabetes: What you need to know Urine tests for diabetes check for protein, ketones, and glucose. They are frequently used for diagnosing and monitoring diabetes, and to assess people who are experiencing symptoms, such as fatigue or nausea. Depending on the results, recommendations may be given about medication or lifestyle changes that could help. Read now
One side effect of ketosis that some people experience is the keto rash. It is rare but can be very irritating. The keto rash occurs in the armpits, chest, and back. These areas are red and itching. There are several theories about the causes of the rash. Because it is found in regions where sweat accumulates, the most plausible explanation is that acetone in the sweat irritates the skin. [7].
NOTE:  Make sure to weigh your ingredients to ensure it rises properly and doesn’t get hallow and gummy.  Also, if you do weigh and grind your psyllium and still have a problem, try grinding the psyllium again.  We have a batch of psyllium that we ground and didn’t work.  Stay really wet.  So we ground it again and it works great!  Also, if your loaf looks nice and big but then deflates after removed from the oven, try reducing the baking powder to 3 teaspoons.
Like many variables in diet, health, and disease, it behooves us to look beyond the bumper sticker explanation. I want to highlight a couple of posts I wrote, to attempt to provide a little more nuance and understanding to the subject: “Ketosis — advantaged or misunderstood state?” Parts I and II. Part I follows below. I’m hoping to write more on the topic in the not-too-distant future since there’s been a number of intriguing papers published recently (certainly since 2012). But I also wanted to bring these back into focus in light of the information I’m seeing more of on the interwebz. (You can also visit the Ketosis section of the site to view more articles on the subject.)
Ketogenic diet could improve body composition: For some sports (such as gymnastics, cycling and some fighting sports), power to weight ratio is a key determinant of performance. Because the ketogenic diet has been associated with fat loss accompanied by lean muscle maintenance (or gain), it could thereby improve the power to weight ratio 21 ,22 and performance. 
I don’t think I have ever posted anything on any other blog before in my life, but this time it’s just plain necessary. 🙂 Basically, I just wanted to let you know that you are a GENIUS, this is by far the best grain free bread I have ever tasted!! I made it with almond flour and egg whites only, and even my boyfriend (who’s the type of guy who generally dislikes anything remotely healthy) had to admit that it’s pretty good — and that it doesn’t remind him of scrambled eggs. 🙂 So thank you, thank you, thank you!
Hello Angie, the same happened here. The taste is great except the bread did not rise. It came out flat. Do I have to slice the load in the middle to get it to rise? I replaced the ghee with regular butter but everything else was the same. Also I read on a different site that if the eggs are not room temperature than that would definitely effect the rise of the bread. I took the cold eggs straight out of the fridge to get the egg whites. What do you think?
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