The A1c test is also used to monitor the glucose control of people with diabetes over time. The goal of those with diabetes is to keep their blood glucose levels as close to normal as possible. This helps to minimize the complications caused by chronically elevated glucose levels, such as progressive damage to body organs like the kidneys, eyes, cardiovascular system, and nerves. Unlike glucose results, which provide information about the glycemic status of a person strictly for the time of blood collection, the A1c test result gives a picture of the average amount of glucose in the blood over the last 2-3 months. This can help people with diabetes and their healthcare practitioners know if the measures that are being taken to control their diabetes are successful or need to be adjusted.
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it is widely known that the reasons behind this disease are not clear even thought there are known contributing risk factors like obesity and genetics. my second question is about the possible causes, do you think that “hygiene hypotheses” might be considered as one of the causes of diabetics. as this conditions according to some studies might negatively trigger the autoimmunity.
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Pre-diabetes is a warning sign that metabolism is getting out of balance. Humans are designed to be physically active hunters and gatherers who move a lot and eat only occasionally. This isn't what most of us do. Essentially, the underlying cause of prediabetes is that there is more fuel (glucose) available than can be used up. This can be because of excess intake of dietary carbs and sugars, because of insulin resistance, or because the liver is making too much glucose. The easiest causes of prediabetes to manage are insulin resistance and excess dietary intake. For many people with prediabetes, it can be reversed with exercise in combination with a eating a low-carb diet (low-glycemic index diet).

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Thomas M Wheeler, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Association for Cancer Research, American Medical Association, American Society for Clinical Pathology, American Society of Cytopathology, American Thyroid Association, American Urological Association, College of American Pathologists, United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, International Society of Urological Pathology, Harris County Medical Society
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In a study published in the journal Clinical Nutrition, researchers followed the diets of more than 3,000 adults who didn't have type 2 diabetes for more than four years. They discovered that people with the highest consumption of legumes—especially lentils—had the lowest risk of diabetes. Replacing half a serving of eggs, bread, rice, or baked potato with legumes daily also was associated with lower risk of diabetes incidence. All legumes, which includes lentils and all types of beans, are high in fiber and a good source of protein.

Doctors and people with diabetes have observed that infections seem more common if you have diabetes. Research in this area, however, has not proved whether this is entirely true, nor why. It may be that high levels of blood sugar impair your body's natural healing process and your ability to fight infections. For women, bladder and vaginal infections are especially common.


What’s critical is not necessarily the cutoff itself, but where someone falls within the ranges listed above. The level of risk of developing type 2 diabetes is closely related to A1c or FPG at diagnosis. Those in the higher ranges (A1c closer to 6.4%, FPG closer to 125 mg/dl) are much more likely to progress to type 2 diabetes, whereas those at lower ranges (A1c closer to 5.7%, FPG closer to 100 mg/dl) are relatively more likely to revert back to normal glucose levels or stay within the prediabetes range. Age of diagnosis and the level of insulin production still occurring at diagnosis also impact the chances of reverting to normoglycemia (normal blood sugar levels).
Insulin is a hormone made by your pancreas that acts like a key to let blood sugar into cells for use as energy. If you have prediabetes, the cells in your body don’t respond normally to insulin. Your pancreas makes more insulin to try to get cells to respond. Eventually your pancreas can’t keep up, and your blood sugar rises, setting the stage for prediabetes—and type 2 diabetes down the road.
For people without diabetes, the normal A1C range is 4-6%. For people with diabetes, the lower the A1C value, the better the diabetes control and the lower the risk of developing complications such as eye, heart, and kidney disease. Your goal should be to have A1C values less than 7%. That may be a hard target to hit, but it is important to try because the lower your A1C, the lower your health risk.
Having a clear goal helped: she didn’t want to miss out on a long bike ride or hike because she wasn’t fit enough. To jump-start her weight loss, she cut out all sugar and most carbs. She lost 15 pounds quickly, but the diet wasn’t sustainable. She then went on a commercial diet plan that provided portioned meals and snacks. “I liked all my meals being measured for me,” she said. “It gave me permission to relax about food.”

Though A1c doesn’t provide day-to-day information, keeping A1c low has been proven to lower the risk of “microvascular” complications like kidney disease (nephropathy), vision loss (retinopathy), and nerve damage (neuropathy). The relationship between A1c and “macrovascular” complications like heart disease is harder to show in clinical trials, but having high blood sugar is a major risk factor for heart disease.
Kumar, R., Chhatwal, S., Arora, S., Sharma, S., Singh, J., Singh, N., … Khurana, A. (2013, January 19). Antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory and adenosine deaminase–lowering effects of garlic in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with obesity. Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy, 6, 49–56. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3554227/
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