High-fructose corn syrup is widely used commercially in the United States, and it may be more fattening than sucrose. In a study published in the "Medscape Journal of Medicine," Emory University researchers concluded that the liver metabolizes fructose more quickly than other types of sugars. When you give your liver more fructose than it can handle, it quickly turns the fructose to fat. Kimber Stanhope, a researcher at the University of California, conducted a study comparing types of sugar and found that people who consumed fructose burned less fat than people who consumed sucrose.
I am not a doctor, and do not have a medical degree, but I've done my homework, and I've lived (and am currently living) a ketogenic lifestyle. So I've done this, I've read loads and loads about it, and I've even been able to help many of my friends use the things I've learned to lead healthier lives. But, as with anything concerning your health, please make sure you have a discussion with your doctor before making a drastic change.
Almost every Sunday, I meal plan and grocery shop for the week. The importance of this routine was never more apparent than during this challenge. Even when I was tired, lazy, running late, I was able to stick with the challenge because of my prep work. (We've got 10 No-Sweat Meal Prep Tricks from Pros.) I also ended up eating a ton more vegetable servings. Rather than starting with a grain, I planned meals around vegetables, then added in protein and healthy fats. My spiralizer got a lot of use!
That’s bad because muscle burns three times as many calories even when you’re inactive than fat does. To be clear, the metabolic benefits of strength training were greatly exaggerated for years. The absolute calorie-burning numbers are not huge: Each pound of muscle burns six calories a day to sustain itself, while each pound of fat burns two. But it’s not insignificant. My 115 pounds of muscle burns 690 calories a day even if I do nothing more strenuous than surf the web. If I lose 10 percent of that lean tissue, my do-nothing calorie burn drops 70 calories a day, or about 500 a week, or more than 25,000 per year.
The foods you eat play an essential role in your metabolism because of how they affect your blood sugar. “High-carbohydrate foods and foods high in sugar can spike your blood sugar, then bring it crashing back down,” Taz Bhatia, M.D., board-certified physician, founder of CentreSpringMD in Atlanta and associate professor of integrative medicine at Emory University, tells SELF. Of course, carbohydrates can be part of a healthy diet (and sometimes you’ve just got to indulge in something, whether it’s healthy or not), but there are two simple ways to keep your blood sugar more balanced even when you’re eating carbs or sugary food.
You can eat fish twice a week. It’s a great source of protein and omega-3s, which are a type of fat your body needs. Omega-3s help lower levels of triglycerides, a type of fat in the blood. They may also cut down on cholesterol, slowing the growth of plaque in arteries. Go for fatty fish, such as salmon, tuna, trout, and sardines. Grill, roast, bake, or broil, but don’t fry them.
T3 affects much more than your resting metabolic rate. Just to take one example, it may affect your mitochondria, the cells that produce energy for your body. Reduced levels of T3 can make your mitochondria more efficient, so they waste less energy and basically do more with less. This means that it takes fewer calories to do every single thing throughout the day, from brushing your teeth to making tea to cooking dinner. That’s great if you’re actually in danger of a famine (which is in fact what your thyroid thinks is going on), because it preserves your energy stores (aka fat tissue) and slows down the process of starving to death. But it’s not so great if you want to lose weight, because eating through your stored energy reserves (fat tissue) is exactly what you’re trying to do!
I realized that, despite my sweet tooth and my nightly bowl (okay, okay, scoops straight from the carton) of ice cream, I eat well and don’t have much to “cut out.” Sure, if I wanted to shed ten pounds and get to some elusive race weight, I could probably do it. But I’d have seriously sacrifice by cutting out all sweets and dialing back my caloric intake, which during marathon season, may not be as high as it should be anyway. So, chalk one up for me, for eating a pretty balanced diet and performing pretty well on the road.
"Most people I have worked with don't benefit from VO2 max testing," he says, explaining that the test can be discouraging if a client thinks they are in better shape than they are. "I don't like delivering discouraging news, so I only do VO2 max if either someone is completely lost, very stubborn and apparently unfit (to give them objective data), or very fit and wants to know their numbers."
Liver biopsy specimens were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin. Steatosis was graded as follows: 0 (<5% of hepatocytes affected); 1 (5–30% of hepatocytes affected); 2 (30–70% of hepatocytes affected); or 3 (>70% of hepatocytes affected). The degree of inflammation and fibrosis was assessed and graded using the modified Knodell scoring system of Ishak.21 Sections were analysed by an experienced hepatopathologist (AC) who was blinded to patient identity and time of biopsy.
Many parts of the body come to grief once people become obese or develop diabetes. It's not surprising that our livers do too, given how central they are to a whole suite of metabolic processes. There's some evidence that a fatty liver may add to the already high risk of heart disease among people who are obese or have diabetes. Fatty livers can also develop into cirrhotic ones if the inflammatory processes take off.
The good news is, if you have early stage NASH — meaning you have inflammation with early stages of fibrosis — weight loss will significantly improve the health of your liver. Clinical trials have shown that patients who lost at least 10% of their body weight had reductions in their fatty liver disease on liver biopsy, with 90% having complete resolution of NASH. Additionally, patients who lose less weight, including as little as 3% of their body weight, also have significant improvements. In all patients who lost weight, every aspect of NASH was improved including fat in liver cells, liver cell death, and inflammation. It is important to note 61% of the patients in this study had no fibrosis, and it was mild in those that had fibrosis.
There are only about 30 metabolic chambers in the world, and the NIH is home to three. These highly sensitive, multimillion-dollar scientific instruments are considered the gold standard for measuring metabolism. They’ve furthered our understanding of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes — diseases that are now among the greatest threats to health worldwide — by letting researchers carefully track how individual bodies respond to the calories they’re offered.