Metabolic syndrome between pregnancies increases the risk of recurrent preeclampsia, according to a retrospective cohort study of 197 women who had preeclampsia during their first pregnancy. Of the 197 women, 40 (20%) had metabolic syndrome between pregnancies. Of these 40 women, 18 (45%) had preeclampsia during their second pregnancy, compared with 27 (17%) of the 157 women without metabolic syndrome between pregnancies. The risk of recurrent preeclampsia increased with the number of components of the metabolic syndrome present. [68, 69]
A Cochrane systematic review in 2018 found and analysed eleven randomized controlled trials of ketogenic diet in people with epilepsy for whom drugs failed to control their seizures. Six of the trials compared a group assigned to a ketogenic diet with a group not assigned to one. The other trials compared types of diets or ways of introducing them to make them more tolerable. In the largest trial of the ketogenic diet with a non-diet control, nearly 38% of the children and young people had half or fewer seizures with the diet compared 6% with the group not assigned to the diet. Two large trials of the Modified Atkins Diet compared to a non-diet control had similar results, with over 50% of children having half or fewer seizures with the diet compared to around 10% in the control group.
Liposuction, also known as lipoplasty, is a commonly performed cosmetic plastic surgery procedure that can reduce the appearance of unsightly bulges and help you attain a slim, svelte physique. It is frequently performed on the abdomen, back and buttocks, but the technique can also be used on the thighs, knees, calves, upper arms, face, neck and other body areas.
I was a Corpsman (not a corpse-man as some recent somewhat fanatical president would say), and I can tell you many stories of Marines and Sailors who maintained restrictive diets (aka picky eaters). Most obvious was lack of sustaining energy (hypoglycemia) at mile 15 (with 80lbs of gear including a 6.5lb rifle and 200 rnds of ammo, etc.) and depletion of essential vitamins, electrolyte imbalance. They were always the first to collapse and have to hear me scold “see I told you so.” An IV of D5W usually does the trick (D is for dextrose, OMG!)
Insulin is a hormone that allows glucose to move into tissue cells, where is it is used for energy production. Insulin then prompts the liver to either store the remaining excess blood glucose as glycogen (for short-term energy storage) and/or to use it to produce fatty acids (which then become triglycerides). In people with insulin resistance, additional insulin must be released by the pancreas to overcome the tissue cells' resistance and allow glucose to enter the cells. This resistance and response to resistance can lead to increased insulin and glucose concentrations in the blood. Over time, increased glucose levels can harm blood vessels and organs such as the kidneys. Increased insulin levels can increase sodium retention by the kidneys, resulting in increases in blood pressure (which can lead to hypertension).
The diet may not work for everyone but is suitable for many different seizure types and epilepsy syndromes, including myoclonic astatic epilepsy, Dravet syndrome, infantile spasms (West syndrome), and those with tuberous sclerosis. If you or your child has feeding problems, or has a condition where a high fat diet would cause problems, the diet may not be suitable.
Your new figure will be similar to what you would expect if you could lose an equal amount of localized fat through diet and exercise alone. The use of smaller cannulas allows the fibrous connections between your skin and body to remain. These connections will contract over time. As a result, excessive skin folds are so rare that many patients avoid the necessity for surgical skin excision such as the tummy tuck by having excellent results with liposuction alone. Sometimes a small tuck can be done to improve skin after liposuction.
Polycystic ovarian syndrome. Thought to be related to insulin resistance, this disorder involves the release of extra male hormones by the ovaries, which can lead to abnormal menstrual bleeding, excessive hair growth, acne, and fertility problems. It is also associated with an increased risk for obesity, hypertension, and — in the long-term — diabetes, heart disease, and cancer.
Carbohydrates have been linked to this skin condition, so cutting down on them may help. And the drop in insulin that a ketogenic diet can trigger may also help stop acne breakouts. (Insulin can cause your body to make other hormones that bring on outbreaks.) Still, more research is needed to determine exactly how much effect, if any, the diet actually has on acne.
^ Freeman JM, Vining EP, Pillas DJ, Pyzik PL, Casey JC, Kelly LM. The efficacy of the ketogenic diet—1998: a prospective evaluation of intervention in 150 children. Pediatrics. 1998 Dec;102(6):1358–63. doi:10.1542/peds.102.6.1358. PMID 9832569. https://web.archive.org/web/20040629224858/http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/press/1998/DECEMBER/981207.HTM Lay summary]—JHMI Office of Communications and Public Affairs. Updated 7 December 1998. Cited 6 March 2008.
Short-term results for the LGIT indicate that at one month approximately half of the patients experience a greater than 50% reduction in seizure frequency, with overall figures approaching that of the ketogenic diet. The data (coming from one centre's experience with 76 children up to the year 2009) also indicate fewer side effects than the ketogenic diet and that it is better tolerated, with more palatable meals.
Net carbs is simply total carbs minus fiber and non-digestible sugar alcohols, like erythritol. (This doesn’t apply to high glycemic sugar alcohols, like maltitol.) We don’t have to count fiber and certain sugar alcohols in net carbs, because they either don’t get broken down by our bodies, are not absorbed, or are absorbed but not metabolized. (Read more about sugar alcohols here.)
A daily run or Spin class is great for your heart, but cardio workouts alone won't do much for your waist. "You need to do a combination of weights and cardiovascular training," says Sangeeta Kashyap, MD, an endocrinologist at Cleveland Clinic. Strength training increases muscle mass, which sets your body up to burn more fat. "Muscle burns more calories than fat, and therefore you naturally burn more calories throughout the day by having more muscle," says Kate Patton, a registered dietitian at Cleveland Clinic. Patton recommends 250 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise or 125 minutes of high-intensity exercise a week.
A: The amount of weight you lose is entirely dependent on you. Obviously adding exercise to your regimen will speed up your weight loss. Cutting out things that are common “stall” causes is also a good thing. Artificial sweeteners, dairy, wheat products and by-products (wheat gluten, wheat flours, and anything with an identifiable wheat product in it).
In the 1960s, medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) were found to produce more ketone bodies per unit of energy than normal dietary fats (which are mostly long-chain triglycerides). MCTs are more efficiently absorbed and are rapidly transported to the liver via the hepatic portal system rather than the lymphatic system. The severe carbohydrate restrictions of the classic ketogenic diet made it difficult for parents to produce palatable meals that their children would tolerate. In 1971, Peter Huttenlocher devised a ketogenic diet where about 60% of the calories came from the MCT oil, and this allowed more protein and up to three times as much carbohydrate as the classic ketogenic diet. The oil was mixed with at least twice its volume of skimmed milk, chilled, and sipped during the meal or incorporated into food. He tested it on 12 children and adolescents with intractable seizures. Most children improved in both seizure control and alertness, results that were similar to the classic ketogenic diet. Gastrointestinal upset was a problem, which led one patient to abandon the diet, but meals were easier to prepare and better accepted by the children. The MCT diet replaced the classic ketogenic diet in many hospitals, though some devised diets that were a combination of the two.
First, a little background: Eric Westman, MD, director of the Duke Lifestyle Medical Clinic, explained to Health in a previous interview that in order to successfully follow the keto diet, you need to eat moderate amounts of protein, reduce your carb intake, and increase fats. When you reduce your carb consumption, your body turns to stored fat as its new fuel source—a process called ketosis. To stay in ketosis, followers of the keto diet must limit their carbs to 50 grams a day, Dr. Westman says.
This was a great read. I aim to restrict carbs always because I believe most are why the American population is obese. I would very much like to hear more about carb restriction excluding the discussion on processed meats and processed high salt content foods because I consume neither. I also don’t consume dairy or eggs. So can you provide some substance.
Advocates for the diet recommend that it be seriously considered after two medications have failed, as the chance of other drugs succeeding is only 10%. The diet can be considered earlier for some epilepsy and genetic syndromes where it has shown particular usefulness. These include Dravet syndrome, infantile spasms, myoclonic-astatic epilepsy, and tuberous sclerosis complex.
• Standard ketogenic diet (SKD) — SKD is the type I typically recommend for most people, because it is very effective. It focuses on high consumption of healthy fats: As I explain in my book, "Fat for Fuel," you should aim for having 70 to 85 percent of your total daily calories to come from healthy fats. For your protein intake, the general rule of thumb is to follow the formula of 1 gram of protein for every kilogram of your lean body mass.
Avocados are a double-whammy to belly fat. First, they’re packed with heart-healthy monounsaturated fats that dim your hunger switches; a study in Nutrition Journal found that participants who ate half a fresh avocado with lunch reported a 40 percent decreased desire to eat for hours afterwards. Second, healthy fats like the unsaturated fats found in avocados seem to prevent the storage of belly fat.
Physiological saline was used in the place of RL previously. The author has noted an appreciable reduction in the tissue swelling post operatively after shifting to RL solution in place of conventional normal saline. The hypotonic saline solution results and Ringer Lactate results were identical and hence the current method of Infiltration fluid does not have any hypotonic saline fluid. The intense local vasoconstriction reduces blood loss to insignificant amounts for most procedures [Figure 8].
As you get older, your body changes how it gains and loses weight. Both men and women experience a declining metabolic rate, or the number of calories the body needs to function normally. On top of that, women have to deal with menopause. "If women gain weight after menopause, it's more likely to be in their bellies," says Michael Jensen, MD, professor of medicine in the Mayo Clinic's endocrinology division. In menopause, production of the hormones estrogen and progesterone slows down. Meanwhile, testosterone levels also start to drop, but at a slower rate. This shift in hormones causes women to hold onto weight in their bellies. The good news: you can fight this process. Read on.
Tumescent liposuction describes a “wetting solution” with a local anesthetic, such as lidocaine and another medication in IV fluids, which is injected before surgery, causing blood vessels to shrink down or constrict. This allows liposuction to be performed with the patient under local anesthesia, minimizes blood loss and reduces postsurgical pain and bleeding.
In general, a person with metabolic syndrome is twice as likely to develop IHD and five times as likely to develop diabetes as someone without it. The probability of developing metabolic syndrome is also closely linked to a lack of physical activity and the fact of being overweight/obese. Other causes include insulin resistance, ethnicity (often Asian), family history, older age and other factors (Box 23.1). Associated diseases and signs may be raised uric acid levels, hepatic steatosis, haemochromatosis and acanthosis nigricans. Metabolic syndrome may be associated with inflammatory periodontal disease.
One of the most common reasons people call our office is to get information about liposuction prices. The average cost of liposuction is a difficult question to answer because there are many factors that can affect the price of liposuction. For example, stomach liposuction cost will be very different then the cost of total body liposuction and traditional liposuction costs will be different then laser liposuction cost. This blog helps to answer some of the questions about liposuction costs for women and men, but really the best way to find out how much liposuction will cost for you would be to come in for a complimentary consultation.
Naturally sweet recipes in Zero Belly Diet were the key to test panelist Isabel Fiolek’s dramatic 13-pound weight loss. “I happen to have a big sugar addiction,” Isabel admits, “But the recipes have been surprisingly satisfying for my sweet tooth.” Isabel also made dramatic health strides: A checkup after her six weeks on Zero Belly Diet revealed she’d dropped her total cholesterol by 25 percent and her blood glucose level by 10 percent.
A: The most common ways to track your carbs is through MyFitnessPal and their mobile app. You cannot track net carbs on the app, although you can track your total carb intake and your total fiber intake. To get your net carbs, just subtract your total fiber intake from your total carb intake. I have written an article on How to Track Carbs on MyFitnessPal.
In many developing countries, the ketogenic diet is expensive because dairy fats and meat are more expensive than grain, fruit and vegetables. The modified Atkins diet has been proposed as a lower-cost alternative for those countries; the slightly more expensive food bill can be offset by a reduction in pharmaceutical costs if the diet is successful. The modified Atkins diet is less complex to explain and prepare and requires less support from a dietitian.
Emerging data suggest an important correlation between metabolic syndrome and risk of stroke.  Each of the components of metabolic syndrome has been associated with elevated stroke risk, and evidence demonstrates a relationship between the collective metabolic syndrome and risk of ischemic stroke.  Metabolic syndrome may also be linked to neuropathy beyond hyperglycemic mechanisms through inflammatory mediators. 
That’s because strength training helps you build muscle, which will replace body fat. In fact, strength training is one of the few activities you can do to spike the amount of calories you burn, even after you’re done with your workout. Bonus: When your metabolic rate becomes faster due to muscle growth, you’ll have a little more wiggle room in your diet if that’s something you struggle with, says Dr. Cheskin.
Over the past several years, liposuction has become one of the most sought after procedures for improving the appearance of our bodies. Not only has in office liposuction proved to be a very effective technique for achieving amazing results, it also has a long track record of safety and laser liposuction risks are few. Due to our busy lifestyles, minimally invasive liposuction has gained increased attention because of the decreased risks and much more rapid recovery. Today’s best liposuction technique involves the use of tumescent “numbing” fluid. Once the tissues are numbed, our surgeons will perform the liposuction. The liposuction procedure can be simply removing the fat with a suction device or it can branch into different techniques including the use of laser liposuction (such as SmartLipo), ultrasound liposuction (such as Vaser Liposuction) or radiofrequency devices (such as the BodyTite system). In each of these branches, the fat is suctioned out after the areas are treated with energy. At Imagen Body Sculpting & Cosmetic Center, we may also use other devices such as power assisted liposuction (PALS Liposuction or Power Lipo) to achieve even better results.
An increase in fat content can be either hypertrophic or hyperplastic. An increase in total fat cell numbers is hyperplastic obesity. It predominates as body fat levels exceed 40% and is more resistant to dieting and exercise regimens. In those cases where the actual number of fat cells remains stable, the cells increase or decrease in their volume with weight gain or loss.
Ultimately, you need to pick a healthy eating plan you can stick to, Stewart says. The benefit of a low-carb approach is that it simply involves learning better food choices—no calorie-counting is necessary. In general, a low-carb way of eating shifts your intake away from problem foods—those high in carbs and sugar and without much fiber, like bread, bagels and sodas—and toward high-fiber or high-protein choices, like vegetables, beans and healthy meats.
Many people struggle with weight loss issues. Losing belly fat in particular is about more than just aesthetics: visceral fat, the kind of fat that tends to settle around the midsection, can cause an increase in your body's production of stress hormones that can affect your body's insulin production. As a result, excess belly fat can lead to serious complications like type 2 diabetes and heart disease. There is no way to target belly fat, but diet and exercise will eventually burn off belly fat. Knowing how to take the first step can help you feel better and get you on the road to a healthier, more active lifestyle.
The size of the cannulas used to extract excess fat. Dr. Schlessinger uses cannulas that are quite small with great success. Larger cannulas mean larger scars and less finesse/worse results than the smaller ones that Dr. Schlessinger uses. While it takes a little more time to do this, Dr. Schlessinger prefers this as it gets him the best results, and he is very willing to take the extra time for the outstanding results he can deliver in this manner. Typically, Dr. Schlessinger performs only one liposuction procedure in a day - that's because he wants to devote the time and attention to just YOU! Compare that to the "hospital" experience with rows of people lined up for procedures and you can start to realize the difference in Dr. Schlessinger's technique and set up.
If you are considering liposuction, the first step is to become as educated as possible about the procedure. Next, schedule a consultation with a board-certified plastic surgeon with extensive experience performing liposuction. Be sure to choose a surgeon certified by the American Board of Plastic Surgery, as this level of certification ensures that the surgeon has undergone extensive training and is highly esteemed by his or her colleagues.
Recent research indicates prolonged chronic stress can contribute to metabolic syndrome by disrupting the hormonal balance of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis). A dysfunctional HPA-axis causes high cortisol levels to circulate, which results in raising glucose and insulin levels, which in turn cause insulin-mediated effects on adipose tissue, ultimately promoting visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension, with direct effects on the bone, causing "low turnover" osteoporosis. HPA-axis dysfunction may explain the reported risk indication of abdominal obesity to cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes and stroke. Psychosocial stress is also linked to heart disease.
Add a cup of low-fat milk, a part-skim mozzarella stick, or a half cup of low-sodium cottage cheese to breakfast, and you may have a belly-busting win. While lots of research links calcium with lower body weights, results from a 2014 study suggest that calcium-containing foods may reduce waist circumference in those genetically predisposed to carrying weight in their midsection.
During this procedure, Dr. Schlessinger will first mark the areas to be suctioned. At that time, you will then be taken to the state-certified ambulatory surgical center and a trained nurse will numb the areas to be treated. This will take about an hour or two, but during this time you will be able to watch TV or listen to music at your leisure. After this time, you will have a short time to relax and let the numbing take effect.
That’s exactly what happened when I shared Zero Belly Diet with a test panel of more than 500 people, some of whom lost as much as 16 pounds in just 14 days, and up to 3 inches off their waist. The secret to Zero Belly Diet is the new science of nutritional genetics, the study of how our genes are turned on and off by the foods we eat. Simply making a handful of tweaks to your diet and lifestyle can help improve your gut health, dampen inflammation, turn off your fat genes and start your body shedding fat—in particular, belly fat—almost automatically. Read on to find out how—and strip away belly fat and lose up to 16 pounds in just two weeks—while eating the foods you love—with Zero Belly Diet, available now!
Anticonvulsants suppress epileptic seizures, but they neither cure nor prevent the development of seizure susceptibility. The development of epilepsy (epileptogenesis) is a process that is poorly understood. A few anticonvulsants (valproate, levetiracetam and benzodiazepines) have shown antiepileptogenic properties in animal models of epileptogenesis. However, no anticonvulsant has ever achieved this in a clinical trial in humans. The ketogenic diet has been found to have antiepileptogenic properties in rats.
Dr. Ayoub performs liposuction on patients who are close to their ideal weight, so you should not substitute this procedure for weight loss. Instead, you will be a few pounds lighter, but have a body that is shaped the way you want it. Patients find that their clothes fit better and small bulges that once bothered them are completely gone.*While you will initially be swollen after your liposuction surgery, as your swelling subsides, your results will be more noticeable.
Now, there’s even evidence that a low-carb, high-fat regimen (as the keto diet is) helps you live longer, compared to a low-fat diet. In a study by the medical journal The Lancet that studied more than 135,000 adults from 18 countries, high carbohydrate intake was associated with higher risk of total mortality, whereas total fat and individual types of fat were related to lower total mortality. Total fat and types of fat were not associated with cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction or cardiovascular disease mortality.
Regular follow-ups with the dietitian, and medical team, will monitor your or your child’s growth (height and weight, if applicable), health, their epilepsy, and if there is a need for any change to their anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), such as changing to sugar-free versions. If the diet is followed carefully, individuals do not put on weight, or lose weight inappropriately.
Metabolic syndrome has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of cataract in several observational studies (Table 19.2). Paunksnis et al. reported an association between metabolic syndrome and cataract among middle-aged European men and women.16 In the Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES), metabolic syndrome was associated with an increased risk of all subtypes of cataract including cortical, nuclear, and posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC) among elderly Australians.17 In a population of Malay adults in Singapore, a significant association between metabolic syndrome and cataract was also found.13 A dose–response relationship was also observed between an increasing number of metabolic syndrome components and cataract. Among the subtypes, cortical cataract showed a positive association with metabolic syndrome.13 Lindblad et al. examined a large, population-based cohort of Swedish women who participated in the Swedish Mammography Cohort and found that a combination of three components of metabolic syndrome, including raised waist circumference, diabetes, and hypertension, increased the risk of cataract extraction by 68% compared to those without any of these components.15 In addition, metabolic syndrome increased the risk of cataract extraction by approximately three-fold among women aged less than 65 years. Galeone et al. found that metabolic syndrome was associated with a two-fold increased risk of cataract extraction in a clinic-based study in Italy.14 Further, a significant linear trend in risk was also reported with an increasing number of metabolic syndrome components.
In relation to overall caloric intake, carbohydrates comprise around 55% of the typical American diet, ranging from 200 to 350 g/day. The vast potential of refined carbohydrates to cause harmful effects were relatively neglected until recently. A greater intake of sugar-laden food is associated with a 44% increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity and a 26% increase in the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. In a 2012 study of all cardiometabolic deaths (heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes) in the United States, an estimated 45.4% were associated with suboptimal intakes of 10 dietary factors. The largest estimated mortality was associated with high sodium intake (9.5%), followed by low intake of nuts and seeds (8.5%), high intake of processed meats (8.2%), low intake of omega-3 fats (7.8%), low intake of vegetables 7.6%), low intake of fruits (7.5%), and high intake of artificially sweetened beverages (7.4%). The lowest estimated mortality was associated with low polyunsaturated fats (2.3%) and unprocessed red meats (0.4%). In addition to this direct harm, excess consumption of low-quality carbohydrates may displace and leave no room in the diet for healthier foods like nuts, unprocessed grains, fruits, and vegetables.
Let me explain what I mean by insulin resistance. A healthy digestive system breaks down food into glucose. Next, insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps the glucose enter your cells to be used as fuel. However, if you experience insulin resistance, your cells won’t respond in a typical fashion to insulin, and hence, the glucose cannot enter your cells as easily. This phenomenon results in increased glucose levels in your bloodstream despite your body’s efforts to manage the glucose by producing more and more insulin.
What is the keto diet? Rather than relying on counting calories, limiting portion sizes, resorting to extreme exercise or requiring lots of willpower, this low-carb diet takes an entirely different approach to weight loss and health improvements. It works because it changes the very “fuel source” that the body uses to stay energized: namely, from burning glucose (or sugar) to dietary fat, courtesy of keto diet recipes and the keto diet food list items, including high-fat, low-carb foods.
What about fruits and vegetables? All fruits are rich in carbs, but you can have certain fruits (usually berries) in small portions. Vegetables (also rich in carbs) are restricted to leafy greens (such as kale, Swiss chard, spinach), cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, asparagus, bell peppers, onions, garlic, mushrooms, cucumber, celery, and summer squashes. A cup of chopped broccoli has about six carbs.
Another analysis of popular diets published in the Annals of Internal Medicine in April 2015 found the Atkins diet to result in more weight loss than simply educating people on portion control, but also noted that most of the studies of this low-carb diet involved registered dieticians helping participants make food choices, rather than the self-directed process by which most people pick up the diets. That's true of many diet studies, the researchers noted, so study results likely look rosier than weight loss in the real world.
But then I got sick and tired of being sick and tired, and since then, I’ve made it my life’s work to learn everything there is to know about how to lose belly fat fast. But nothing in my 20 years of health journalism has prepared me for the groundbreaking research that has emerged in just the last year—new science that shows exactly how we can turn off our fat genes and lose weight almost automatically.
There are so many tricks, shortcuts, and gimmicks out there on achieving optimal ketosis – I’d suggest you don’t bother with any of that. Optimal ketosis can be accomplished through dietary nutrition alone (aka just eating food). You shouldn’t need a magic pill to do it. Just stay strict, remain vigilant, and be focused on recording what you eat (to make sure your carb and protein intake are correct).
"I am very particular and very much a chicken. Dr Yaker was very patient with me. He did not rush me and was not put out even with my three consults and changing procedures. I knew the work would be painful and have down time. I did what I was told and it keeps looking better everyday. My eyes look amazing the lipo is smooth. My arms are going to take awhile to heal but in the event they are not perfect down the road he will revise them with no cost to me. I found the staff to be very gentle, knowledgeable and honest."
Keto diets "can help us lose weight, but compared to other diet strategies, they're not more helpful," said Melissa Majumdar, a dietitian at the Brigham and Women's Center for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and a spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Much of the weight lost in the initial stages of a keto diet is water weight, because carbohydrate stores in the body carry water molecules with them, Majumdar told Live Science. That can move the scale an exciting amount initially, but weight loss inevitably slows with time.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder, and it affects women of reproductive age. Symptoms include obesity, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. A pilot study took 11 women through 24 weeks of a low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (20 grams or less per day). Among the five who completed the study, they lost 12 percent of their weight on average and reduced fasting insulin by 54 percent. Additionally, two women who previously experienced infertility problems became pregnant. (6)
There is debate regarding whether obesity or insulin resistance is the cause of the metabolic syndrome or if they are consequences of a more far-reaching metabolic derangement. A number of markers of systemic inflammation, including C-reactive protein, are often increased, as are fibrinogen, interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and others. Some have pointed to a variety of causes, including increased uric acid levels caused by dietary fructose.