In addition, the history of the Mediterranean diet includes a love for and fascination with wine — especially red wine, which is considered beneficial and protective in moderation. For instance, red wine may help fight obesity, among other benefits. This smart choice of a healthy way of life leads to longer lives free of chronic complications and diseases related to stress, such as those caused by hormonal imbalances, fatigue, inflammation and weight gain.
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The Harvard pyramid is based on the Mediterranean diet. Its structure came from the diets of the inhabitants of Crete and Southern Italy in the 1960’s. The study was presented in 1993 by Walter Willett of the Harvard School of Public Health at the International Conference on the Mediterranean Diet held in Cambridge Massachusetts. Note that oil is one of the basic components, in direct opposition to the current USDA pyramid. This pyramid has enjoyed a decade of increasing acceptance.
If the idea of overhauling your entire way of shopping and eating seems daunting, start small. Wiping the slate entirely clean may not be necessary. Instead, take steps toward eating more in the Mediterranean-style. Choose one of these strategies below, and make it a habit. When you're ready, move onto the next strategy. No matter where you choose to start, these seven tips for starting a Mediterranean diet can help you makeover your plate so you can reap the benefits.
The premise of the ketogenic diet for weight loss is that if you deprive the body of glucose—the main source of energy for all cells in the body, which is obtained by eating carbohydrate foods—an alternative fuel called ketones is produced from stored fat (thus, the term “keto”-genic). The brain demands the most glucose in a steady supply, about 120 grams daily, because it cannot store glucose. During fasting, or when very little carbohydrate is eaten, the body first pulls stored glucose from the liver and temporarily breaks down muscle to release glucose. If this continues for 3-4 days and stored glucose is fully depleted, blood levels of a hormone called insulin decrease, and the body begins to use fat as its primary fuel. The liver produces ketone bodies from fat, which can be used in the absence of glucose. 
The ketogenic diet is a diet based on the consumption of predominately fat, giving less emphasis to the other two macronutrients, particularly carbohydrates. While ratios vary depending on the individual and their goals, consumption typically consists of only five to ten percent carbohydrates, fifteen to thirty percent protein and the remainder of the diet is made up of fat.
For Brown University researcher and Associate Professor of Clinical Medicine Dr. Mary Flynn, the development and advocacy of a plant-based, olive oil diet was at one time considered outrageous. In the 1990s when the notion of consuming low-fat and fat-free foods for health was gaining widespread popularity, Flynn, who is also a nutritionist at The Miriam Hospital, was a vocal dissident. She openly expressed her concerns that this eating pattern was largely unsupported by sound science, even though many others in her field opposed her views. “I know that people in the nutrition community thought I was a near heretic,” Flynn says.
What makes MCTs a top source of essential healthy fats? Medium-chain fats are digested easily and sent directly to your liver, where they have a thermogenic effect and the ability to positively alter your metabolism. This is one reason why many people claim that MCTs, including coconut oil, are burned by the body for energy, or “fuel,” instead of being stored as fat.
In 2007, a team of eight research scientists compared the impact of the Atkins diet on body mass and body fat with three other diets in a 12-month randomized controlled trial. The team recruited 311 overweight and obese, premenopausal women with no history of diabetes or cardiovascular diseases. The women had an average age of 41 years, BMI of 32, and body fat percentage of 40. After taking baseline measurements, researchers distributed the subjects to one of four different groups.
Another Nurses’ Health Study following 10,670 women ages 57-61 observed the effect of dietary patterns on aging.  Healthy aging was defined as living to 70 years or more, and having no chronic diseases (e.g., type 2 diabetes, kidney disease, lung disease, Parkinson’s disease, cancer) or major declines in mental health, cognition, and physical function. The study found that the women who followed a Mediterranean-type eating pattern were 46% more likely to age healthfully. Increased intake of plant foods, whole grains, and fish; moderate alcohol intake; and low intake of red and processed meats were believed to contribute to this finding.
You can approach keto in a number of different ways. On some keto diets, like dirty keto, it doesn’t matter where your fats, protein, and carbs come from. So dinner could be a bunless cheeseburger with extra bacon. Eating bad fats like low-quality vegetable oils, packaged low-carb snacks, and processed cheese dials up inflammation, making weight loss more challenging.
What is surprising is that the one group that had significantly less atherosclerosis than the other two was the group with the lowest levels, by far, of HDL good cholesterol. It was the polyunsaturated-fat-rich group. “Most likely, this group’s higher intake of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids provided some protection against the blood cholesterol-raising effect of their high dietary cholesterol intake,” notes Dr. Tom Rifai, MD, FACP, Founder/CEO, Reality Meets Science® LLC and member of the Pritikin Scientific Advisory Board.
How do MCTs help with weight loss? Experimental studies demonstrate that dietary MCTs suppress fat deposition through enhanced thermogenesis and fat oxidation in both animals and humans. (4) In other words, it’s believed that they help the body produce ketones, which gives you the same benefits as the ketogenic diet without needing to cut carbs to drastically low levels.
Hallberg suggests caution, however, around very long fasts lasting multiple days. “If you are skipping meals because you are not hungry from doing a proper low-carb, high-fat diet that is just fine.” She is concerned, however, about very long fasts in which people are ignoring hunger signals and for the potential for a dangerous physiological fluid and electrolyte imbalance called refeeding syndrome that can arise after very long extended fasts, lasting many days, when normal eating is resumed.
When you want to add some carbs to a workout, you can follow the targeted ketogenic diet. You’re allowed a few extra carbs, but they are only on the days and around the timings of your workouts. The focus is on still getting the exercise without struggling with energy. You wouldn’t need to do this if you get enough fat into your diet and once your body gets into the ketone producing zone.
MCTs and saturated fats are good for you in other ways, too: They reduce the risks of low-fat diets, and they’re supportive of your gut environment, especially since they have the capability to combat harmful bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Additionally, MCTs contain antioxidant properties, which is why coconut oil has far-reaching inflammatory benefits that have led it to be used to treat dozens of health problems in folk medicine for centuries.
Obesity means that someone has an excess amount of fat to the extent that it harms your health. Oftentimes, doctors, nurses, and other professionals will put your weight in terms of your height and gender in a figure called body mass index (BMI). According to the World Health Organization, a BMI from 25-30 usually indicates someone is overweight, BMI in the 30-35 range puts someone in the range of being obese and 35 and over morbidly obese. 
Unfortunately, our current food environment is nothing like what the human race initially evolved to handle. Today, we are constantly bombarded with endless processed food options, food ads, and smells that trigger our desires. As a result, the oldest parts of our brain motivate us to hunt for that food, which we now have a 100% chance of getting — and we don’t have to exert much effort at all to get it.
Research suggests that people who follow a keto diet do drop pounds. A 2013 analysis published in the British Journal of Nutrition (BJN) that evaluated 13 studies found that people who adhered to it lost more weight than those who followed a low-fat diet, at least in the short term. And Roehl notes that her patients who follow the diet for epilepsy tend to lose weight as a side effect.
Cut out the alcohol for now: Many people love the fact that on a low-carb or keto diet you can have a glass of dry white or red wine from time to time. If you are experiencing a weight-loss plateau, or gaining weight, cut out all alcohol for now until weight loss starts again. Even a few drinks a week can cause a stall. “I love my Friday night glass of wine after a hard week, but I will cut it out for now,” says Samantha.
Almost everything in this diet is good for your heart. Olive oil and nuts help lower "bad" cholesterol. Fruits, veggies, and beans help keep arteries clear. Fish helps lower triglycerides and blood pressure. Even a daily glass of wine may be good for your heart! If you've never fallen in love with fish, try this Mediterranean-inspired recipe for Grilled Whole Trout With Lemon-Tarragon Bean Salad.
Compared to other types of oils and fats, MCTs seem to have positive effects on fat burning and weight reduction. As part of a healthy diet, MCT oil can help increase satiety and even raise the metabolic rate at which the body functions. Does this mean eating large amounts of MCTs daily will make you drop pounds? Not quite. Not every study has shown that MCTs can produce weight loss necessarily, but some definitely have shown the positive effects of MCTs on metabolic function.
Nine months ago she decided to try the stricter keto diet and followed our advice to help support this way of eating. By testing her urine with keto stix she could see she was expelling ketones in the low to moderate range. But still her weight was increasing — she gained a total of 7 lbs (3 kg) over nine months of keto eating. And her clothes were feeling tight and uncomfortable. What was she doing wrong?
Mediterranean diet is a generic term based on the typical eating habits in the countries that border the Mediterranean Sea. Elements include dairy products, fish and poultry being more common than red meat; fruits, vegetables, bread and other cereals, potatoes, beans, nuts and seeds; use of olive oil; wine consumed in low to moderate amounts. These diets have similarities to the American Heart Association's dietary recommendations, except a relatively high percentage of calories in Mediterranean-style diets come from fat.
Are you tracking your calorie intake? Healthy fats also have higher calories and can put you at or over your bodies calorie requirement. Calculate the calories that you have been eating over the past while and then check how many calories you should actually be taking in. If you want to lose weight you have to be in calorie deficit regardless of whether you are in ketosis or not.
All olive oils are not the same, however. This book also explores the effects of diverse varieties of olives, growing techniques and oil-production methods on the health-giving properties - and flavour - of different oils. With over 100 delicious recipes, it points the way to those extra virgin oils and food combinations that are likely to do you the most good.
After investigating 20 controlled feeding studies, Hall and Guo found that both low-carb and high-carb diets had similar effects on body fatness and energy expenditure. The results of this meta-analysis provide us with high-quality evidence that supports the widely-believed theory that calories matter much more than the fat or carbohydrate content of the diet when it comes to weight loss. 
Judy Ridgway is an acclaimed food writer and international expert on olive oil. She was the first non-Italian judge to sit on the judging panel of the prestigious Leone d'Oro international awards for olive oil. She travels frequently to the producing regions meeting the growers and tasting the oils along the way. She is also in regular contact with specialist cooking schools, university agricultural departments and research institutes. Previous books featuring olive oil include two editions of Judy Ridgway's Best Olive Oil Buys Round the World and The Olive Oil Companion. She also has extensive experience of national TV and radio.
The 2017 meta-analysis by Drs. Kevin Hall and Juen Guo provide us with very convincing data, but we must also consider the fact that the data came from studies where all the food was provided by the scientists. Although this is a great way to assess the difference between low-carb and high-carb diet, this does not simulate the real-world effectiveness of each diet. For this reason, we must investigate data from less strict studies. In other words, we need to look at what happened when subjects were told to follow a specific diet on their own.
Some negative side effects of a long-term ketogenic diet have been suggested, including increased risk of kidney stones and osteoporosis, and increased blood levels of uric acid (a risk factor for gout). Possible nutrient deficiencies may arise if a variety of recommended foods on the ketogenic diet are not included. It is important to not solely focus on eating high-fat foods, but to include a daily variety of the allowed meats, fish, vegetables, fruits, nuts, and seeds to ensure adequate intakes of fiber, B vitamins, and minerals (iron, magnesium, zinc)—nutrients typically found in foods like whole grains that are restricted from the diet. Because whole food groups are excluded, assistance from a registered dietitian may be beneficial in creating a ketogenic diet that minimizes nutrient deficiencies.
If you stop taking MCT oil for a while and then restart, begin with a small amount again to allow your digestive system to readjust. That said, MCT oil is often more easily digested by those struggling to digest other types of fat, such as those with malabsorption, leaky gut, Crohn's disease or gallbladder impairment (such as an infection or if you had your gallbladder removed).
The solution? One way of approaching this issue is through dieting. To adapt to such an abundant food environment, you need to give your brain new food rules to follow (e.g, a diet). Your brain needs you to tell it what to eat and what not to eat to meet your health goals. One of the best ways to do this is by finding a diet with simple rules that you can follow for the rest of your life.
Elena Paravantes, RDN is a Registered Dietitian Nutritionist, Writer and consultant specializing in the Mediterranean Diet and Cuisine. She has been active as a clinician, consultant and lecturer for 20 years, both in the U.S. and Greece. An expert on the Greek Mediterranean Diet, her interviews and articles have been published in many publications including CNN, U.S. News and World Report, Prevention, NPR, and Shape. Elena has collaborated with a number of organizations including Loyola University, Yale University, University of Missouri, Louisiana State University, and the American College of Greece.
Get a good night sleep: During menopause, many women find their quality of sleep sharply deteriorates, often because of hot flashes and night sweats. Drs. Fung and Hallberg really recommend that women in weight loss plateaus aim to improve their sleep. A good night sleep reduces stress and cortisol, the stress hormone that when raised hangs onto abdominal fat.
To maximize the benefits of olive oil, Palinski-Wade mixes six servings a day with other ingredients scientifically proven to blast belly fat — including lean protein (which helps keep belly-fat hormones low) and dairy (rich in an amino acid that speeds the release of ab fat). On the olive oil diet plan, you’ll also enjoy berries, greens, beans, potatoes, and other plant foods that come packed with belly-fat-fighting antioxidants.